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Table 1 Differential diagnosis of Mg deficiency in the ICU setting

From: Hypomagnesemia in critically ill patients

Gastrointestinal disorders
 Prolonged nasogastric suction
 Malabsorption syndromes
 Extensive bowel resection
 Acute and chronic diarrhea
 Intestinal and biliary fistulae
 Protein-calorie malnutrition (parenteral nutrition, anorexia, refeeding syndrome)
 Acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis
 Primary intestinal hypomagnesemia (neonatal)
Renal loss
 Chronic parenteral fluid therapy
 Osmotic diuresis (glucose, mannitol, urea)
 Drugs (see Table 2)
 Metabolic acidosis (starvation, ketoacidosis, alcoholism)
 Renal diseases
  Chronic pyelonephritis, interstitial nephritis, and glomerulonephritis
  Diuretic phase of acute tubular necrosis
  Postobstructive nephropathy
  Renal tubular acidosis
  Post-renal transplantation
  Primary renal hypomagnesemia