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Table 1 Patient characteristics by quartile of the timing of tracheostomy

From: Association between early tracheostomy and patient outcomes in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation: a multicenter cohort study

  Q1
Tracheostomy ≤ 6 days (n = 446)
Q2
Tracheostomy 7–10 days (n = 405)
Q3
Tracheostomy 11–14 days (n = 323)
Q4
Tracheostomy > 14 days (n = 364)
p value
Age, years 70 (60–77) 70 (62–78) 70 (59–78) 70 (60–77) 0.658
Sex, male 308 (69.1%) 259 (64.0%) 207 (64.1%) 231 (63.5%) 0.277
Body mass index, kg/m2 21.6 (18.7–24.6) 21.8 (19.0–24.3) 22.0 (19.3–25.0) 22.1 (19.5–25.0) 0.176
Comorbidity
 Chronic heart failure 5 (1.1%) 5 (1.2%) 5 (1.5%) 14 (3.8%) 0.035
 Chronic respiratory failure 26 (5.8%) 15 (3.7%) 11 (3.4%) 8 (2.2%) 0.065
 Chronic liver disease 7 (1.6%) 6 (1.5%) 4 (1.2%) 5 (1.4%) 0.991
 Malignancy 24 (5.4%) 23 (5.7%) 17 (5.3%) 22 (6.0%) 0.971
 Immunodeficiency 40 (9.0%) 37 (9.1%) 43 (13.3%) 43 (11.8%) 0.158
 Maintenance dialysis 12 (2.7%) 14 (3.5%) 25 (7.7%) 26 (7.1%) 0.001
Emergency admission 384 (86.1%) 360 (88.9%) 283 (87.6%) 299 (82.4%) 0.063
Surgical type of admission 172 (38.6%) 158 (39.0%) 124 (38.4%) 177 (48.6%) 0.010
Systematic diagnosis for ICU admission
 Cardiac 63 (14.1%) 80 (19.8%) 88 (27.2%) 162 (44.5%)  < 0.001
 Respiratory 142 (31.8%) 109 (26.9%) 65 (20.1%) 77 (21.2%)
 Gastrointestinal 38 (8.5%) 51 (12.6%) 39 (12.1%) 49 (13.5%)
 Neurological 133 (29.8%) 103 (25.4%) 66 (20.4%) 33 (9.1%)
 Sepsis 8 (1.8%) 11 (2.7%) 13 (4.0%) 10 (2.7%)
 Trauma 37 (8.3%) 41 (10.1%) 27 (8.4%) 17 (4.7%)
 Other diagnosis 25 (5.6%) 10 (2.5%) 25 (7.7%) 16 (4.4%)
APACHE II score 22 (17–28) 23 (19–29) 24 (19–31) 22 (18–28) 0.003
Data within 24 h after ICU admission
 Incidence of AKI 20/446 (4.5%) 23/404 (5.7%) 43/323 (13.3%) 43/363 (11.8%) < 0.001
 Lowest PaO2:FiO2 226 (154–320) 199 (133–293) 194 (125–291) 172 (117–236) < 0.001
 GCS score 12 (6–15) 11 (6–15) 13 (6–15) 15 (10–15) < 0.001
Length of hospital stay before ICU admission, days 1 (0–6) 1 (0–4) 1 (0–6) 1 (0–5) 0.686
  1. Data are presented as the median and interquartile range or as numbers (percentages)
  2. P values are analyzed using the Chi-square (Fisher’s exact) test or the Kruskal–Wallis test
  3. ICU intensive care unit, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, AKI acute kidney injury, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale