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Table 2 Outcomes before and after propensity score matching

From: Intensive care unit versus high-dependency care unit for patients with acute heart failure: a nationwide propensity score-matched cohort study

Outcomes Before propensity score matching After propensity score matching Difference
(95% CI)
P value
ICU HDU ICU HDU
(n = 78,646) (n = 124,220) (n = 62,352) (n = 62,352)
In-hospital mortality 8,759 (11.1) 14,672 (11.8) 6,696 (10.7) 7,101 (11.4)  − 0.6 (− 1.5 to 0.2) 0.14
Length of hospital stay, days 26 ± 31 24 ± 24 25 ± 28 24 ± 25 1.1 (0.3 to 1.9) 0.006
Length of ICU/HDU stay, days 5 ± 9 5 ± 6 5 ± 9 5 ± 7  − 0.1 (− 0.4 to 0.2) 0.42
Total hospitalization cost, USD 17,670 (29,246) 12,924 (15,891) 15,934 (23,606) 13,751 (18,347) 2183 (1435 to 2931)  < 0.001
Complications after admission       
 Pneumonia 3,199 (4.1) 4,040 (3.3) 2,356 (3.8) 2,155 (3.5) 0.3 (− 0.1 to 0.7) 0.13
 Stroke 2,124 (2.7) 2,709 (2.2) 1,631 (2.6) 1,382 (2.2) 0.4 (0.1 to 0.7) 0.003
 Endoscopic hemostasis for GI bleeding 417 (0.5) 563 (0.5) 320 (0.5) 313 (0.5) 0.01 (− 0.07 to 0.09) 0.79
 Catheter-related bloodstream infection 111 (0.1) 92 (0.1) 79 (0.1) 56 (0.1) 0.04 (0.00 to 0.07) 0.050
 Clostridioides difficile infection 223 (0.3) 319 (0.3) 183 (0.3) 153 (0.2) 0.05 (− 0.04 to 0.01) 0.28
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or mean ± standard deviation
  2. ICU intensive care unit; HDU high-dependency care unit; CI confidence interval; USD United States dollars; GI gastrointestinal