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Table 1 Baseline characteristics before and after propensity score matching

From: Intensive care unit versus high-dependency care unit for patients with acute heart failure: a nationwide propensity score-matched cohort study

Characteristics Before propensity score matching After propensity score matching
ICU HDU ASD ICU HDU ASD
(n = 78,646) (n = 124,220) (n = 62,352) (n = 62,352)
Age category, years       
 15–59 8623 (11) 9551 (8) 11 6012 (10) 6233 (10) 1
 60–69 12,549 (16) 15,166 (12) 11 9097 (15) 9182 (15) 0
 70–79 21,590 (27) 29,166 (23) 9 16,293 (26) 16,534 (27) 1
 80–89 27,818 (35) 49,134 (40) 9 23,419 (38) 23,159 (37) 1
 ≥ 90 8066 (10) 21,203 (17) 20 7531 (12) 7244 (12) 1
Male 45,539 (58) 65,536 (53) 10 34,891 (56) 35,036 (56) 1
Smoking history       
 Nonsmoker 39,997 (51) 69,204 (56) 10 32,837 (53) 32,462 (52) 1
 Current/past smoker 28,244 (36) 39,154 (32) 9 21,569 (35) 21,841 (35) 1
 Unknown 10,405 (13) 15,862 (13) 1 7946 (13) 8049 (13) 1
Body mass index at admission, kg/m2      
 < 18.5 11,398 (14) 20,731 (17) 6 9487 (15) 9462 (15) 0
 18.5–24.9 42,295 (54) 66,216 (53) 1 33,419 (54) 33,515 (54) 0
 25.0–29.9 13,836 (18) 20,142 (16) 4 10,615 (17) 10,595 (17) 0
 ≥ 30.0 4786 (6) 6627 (5) 3 3653 (6) 3666 (6) 0
 Missing 6331 (8) 10,504 (8) 2 5178 (8) 5114 (8) 0
Japan Coma Scale score at admission       
 Alert 55,363 (70) 90,007 (72) 5 45,087 (72) 45,263 (73) 1
 Confusion 14,730 (19) 25,663 (21) 5 11,892 (19) 11,696 (19) 1
 Somnolence 3886 (5) 4368 (4) 7 2638 (4) 2645 (4) 0
 Coma 4667 (6) 4182 (3) 12 2735 (4) 2748 (4) 0
Physical function at admission       
 Total/severe dependence (BI 0–60) 44,788 (57) 75,717 (61) 8 36,189 (58) 35,992 (58) 1
 Slight/moderate dependence (BI 61–99) 2886 (4) 7479 (6) 11 2652 (4) 2515 (4) 1
 Independent (BI 100) 14,395 (18) 18,982 (15) 8 10,864 (17) 11,160 (18) 1
 Missing 16,577 (21) 22,042 (18) 8 12,647 (20) 12,685 (20) 0
Cognitive function before admission       
 No dementia 62,514 (79) 87,997 (71) 20 48,040 (77) 48,328 (78) 1
 Mild dementia 11,281 (14) 23,981 (19) 13 9907 (16) 9729 (16) 1
 Moderate/severe dementia 4,851 (6) 12,242 (10) 14 4405 (7) 4295 (7) 1
 Home medical care before admission 4628 (6) 9537 (8) 7 4030 (6) 4044 (6) 0
Location before hospitalization       
 Home 69,582 (88) 108,333 (87) 4 55,212 (89) 55,371 (89) 1
 Other hospitals 5069 (6) 5481 (4) 9 3430 (6) 3418 (5) 0
 Nursing home 3995 (5) 10,406 (8) 13 3710 (6) 3563 (6) 1
 Ambulance use 57,243 (73) 76,205 (61) 25 43,223 (69) 43,657 (70) 2
 Admission on a weekend 19,860 (25) 28,864 (23) 5 15,380 (25) 15,337 (25) 0
Comorbidities       
 Ischemic heart disease 23,479 (30) 32,383 (26) 8 17,885 (29) 18,039 (29) 1
 Diabetes mellitus 25,442 (32) 35,323 (28) 9 19,500 (31) 19,644 (32) 1
 Hypertension 42,660 (54) 64,774 (52) 4 33,757 (54) 33,743 (54) 0
 Hyperlipidemia 19,133 (24) 26,527 (21) 7 14,714 (24) 14,788 (24) 0
 Atrial flutter/fibrillation 18,157 (23) 35,068 (28) 12 15,533 (25) 15,433 (25) 0
 Chronic kidney disease 13,750 (17) 19,434 (16) 5 10,384 (17) 10,327 (17) 0
 Cancer 3429 (4) 5646 (5) 1 2796 (4) 2767 (4) 0
Charlson comorbidity index 1.4 ± 1.4 1.3 ± 1.4 7 1.4 ± 1.3 1.4 ± 1.4 0
Treatments on day of admission       
 Respiratory support       
  No supplemental oxygen 13,848 (18) 21,594 (17) 1 12,005 (19) 12,106 (19) 0
  Supplemental oxygen 24,938 (32) 71,027 (57) 53 24,121 (39) 23,535 (38) 2
  Noninvasive ventilation 31,769 (40) 28,080 (23) 39 23,015 (37) 23,351 (37) 1
  Intubation 8091 (10) 3519 (3) 31 3211 (5) 3360 (5) 1
 Intravenous vasodilator       
  Carperitide 28,527 (36) 41,402 (33) 6 22,282 (36) 22,343 (36) 0
  Nitrate 33,780 (43) 35,205 (28) 31 23,851 (38) 24,297 (39) 2
  Nicorandil 5742 (7) 4894 (4) 15 3533 (6) 3598 (6) 1
  Calcium-channel blocker 9730 (12) 11,468 (9) 10 6980 (11) 7018 (11) 0
 Diuretic       
  Intravenous furosemide 52,132 (66) 84,840 (68) 4 42,043 (67) 41,961 (67) 0
  Tolvaptan 5980 (8) 11,935 (10) 7 5152 (8) 4945 (8) 1
 Inotrope       
  Milrinone 1059 (1) 1206 (1) 4 687 (1) 687 (1) 0
  Pimobendan 1473 (2) 2332 (2) 0 1203 (2) 1216 (2) 0
  Dobutamine 11,582 (15) 12,769 (10) 14 7580 (12) 7706 (12) 1
 Vasopressor       
  Dopamine 5254 (7) 5419 (4) 10 3205 (5) 3198 (5) 0
  Noradrenaline 5871 (7) 2782 (2) 25 2360 (4) 2399 (4) 0
 Mechanical circulatory support       
  Intra-aortic balloon pumping 1818 (2) 538 (0) 16 502 (1) 519 (1) 0
  Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 375 (0) 101 (0) 8 88 (0) 97 (0) 0
 Other treatment       
  Coronary angiography 4252 (5) 2503 (2) 18 2116 (3) 2115 (3) 0
  Percutaneous coronary intervention 1317 (2) 601 (0) 12 539 (1) 545 (1) 0
  Digoxin 3128 (4) 4979 (4) 0 2535 (4) 2596 (4) 1
  Intravenous beta-blockers 3257 (4) 4056 (3) 5 2336 (4) 2365 (4) 0
  Amiodarone 3640 (5) 3712 (3) 9 2369 (4) 2431 (4) 1
  Cardiac pacing 1019 (1) 814 (1) 7 599 (1) 603 (1) 0
  Intermittent renal replacement therapy 3423 (4) 3370 (3) 9 2384 (4) 2430 (4) 0
  Continuous renal replacement therapy 2385 (3) 684 (1) 19 672 (1) 663 (1) 0
  Antibiotics 18,597 (24) 24,182 (19) 10 13,037 (21) 13,067 (21) 0
  Morphine 2421 (3) 2015 (2) 10 1530 (2) 1597 (3) 1
  Red blood cell transfusion 3352 (4) 3660 (3) 7 2108 (3) 2090 (3) 0
 Hospital characteristics       
  Tertiary emergency hospital 41,117 (52) 83,724 (67) 31 35,228 (56) 34,513 (55) 2
  Academic hospital 13,678 (17) 11,775 (9) 23 8643 (14) 8985 (14) 2
 Hospital volume, patients per year       
  Low (≤ 66) 28,467 (36) 38,650 (31) 11 22,141 (36) 22,355 (36) 1
  Medium (67–129) 28,609 (36) 39,238 (32) 10 21,325 (34) 21,692 (35) 1
  High (≥ 130) 21,570 (27) 46,332 (37) 21 18,886 (30) 18,305 (29) 2
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or mean ± standard deviation
  2. ICU intensive care unit; HDU high-dependency care unit; ASD absolute standardized mean difference; BI Barthel index