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Table 1 Patients characteristics and outcomes

From: Effects of dexamethasone on immune dysfunction and ventilator-associated pneumonia in COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome: an observational study

  Wave 1 (n = 18) Wave 2 (n = 18) P
Age—years 66 [61–70] 70 [61–73] 0.419
Male gender—n (%) 14 (78) 15 (83)  > 0.99
Body mass index—kg/m2 31 [28–36] 31 [28–36] 0.567
Hypertension—n (%) 8 (44) 10 (56) 0.740
Diabetes—n (%) 5 (63) 9 (50) 0.310
SAPS II score—points 39 [33–50] 37 [31–47] 0.486
SOFA score at Day 1a—points 8 [6–9] 5 [2–8] 0.041
Delay between symptoms and ICU admission—days 6 [4–9] 9 [7–11] 0.09
Delay between ICU admission and intubation—days 1 [0–2] 1 [1, 2] 0.356
Bacterial superinfection at intubation—n (%) 6 (33) 3 (17) 0.440
Lowest PaO2/FiO2 ratio during ICU stay—mmHg 83 [62–112] 81 [62–100] 0.784
Severity of ARDS—n (%)    0.460
Moderate 6 (33) 4 (22)  
Severe 12 (67) 14 (78)  
Duration of invasive mechanical ventilation—days 29 [18–47] 12 [8–22]  < 0.01
Ventilation acquired pneumoniae—n (%) 15 (83) 13 (72) 0.802
Delay between intubation and VAP—days 13 [8–27] 7 [5–11] 0.020
Day 28 mortality—n (%) 5 (28) 2 (11) 0.210
Day 90 mortality—n (%) 8 (44) 3 (17) 0.150
  1. SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, ICU intensive care unit, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, VAP ventilation acquired pneumoniae. Results were compared using Mann–Whitney test or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate
  2. aDay 1: day of the first measures of lymphocytes counts and monocyte HLA-DR expression
  3. Data are expressed as median (interquartile) and number (percentage)