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Table 1 Comparison of baseline characteristics according to physical restraint during the first 24 to 72 h after admission

From: Association between physical restraint requirement and unfavorable neurologic outcomes in subarachnoid hemorrhage

Variables Total
(n = 101)
Physical restraint during the first 24 to 72 h after admission P value
No
physical restraint
(n = 46)
Intermittent
physical restraint
(n = 26)
Continuous
physical restraint
(n = 29)
Age (year) 65 (48–77) 58 (42–73) 69 (51–74) 69 (62–81) 0.065
Age > 65 years (%) 50 (49.5) 18 (39.1) 16 (61.5) 16 (55.2) 0.145
Female sex (%) 58 (57.4) 30 (65.2) 17 (65.4) 11 (37.9) 0.042
Hunt & Kosnik grade 2.0 (2.0–3.0) 2.0 (1.0–3.0) 2.5 (2.0–3.0) 2.0 (2.0–4.0) 0.117
Fisher score 3 (3–3) 3 (2–3) 3 (3–3) 3 (3–3) 0.177
WFNS grade 2 (1–4) 2 (1–3) 2 (1–4) 2 (2–4) 0.117
Treatment modality (%)
 Endovascular 80 (79.2) 40 (87.0) 20 (76.9) 20 (68.9) 0.165
 Surgical 21 (20.8) 6 (13.0) 6 (23.1) 9 (31.3)  
Laboratory data on admission
 Albumin (g/dL) 4.0 (3.6–4.3) 3.9 (3.5–4.5) 4.0 (3.7–4.3) 4.0 (3.8–4.3) 0.697
 Glucose (mg/dL) 135 (115–167) 130 (112–157) 138 (122–190) 146 (113–173) 0.153
 Lactate level (mg/dL) 11.0 (8.0–20.0) 10.0 (7.0–20.0) 11.0 (6.5–17.5) 13.0 (9.0–29.0) 0.208
Aneurysm location
 Anterior communicating/ cerebral artery aneurysm 32 (31.7) 14 (30.4) 9 (34.6) 9 (31.0) 0.165
 Internal carotid artery aneurysma 31 (30.7) 20 (43.5) 6 (23.1) 5 (17.2)  
 Middle cerebral artery aneurysm 17 (16.9) 4 (8.7) 5 (19.2) 8 (27.6)  
 Posterior circulationb aneurysm 21 (20.8) 8 (17.4) 6 (23.1) 7 (24.1)  
Delayed cerebral ischemia (%) 21 (20.8) 10 (21.7) 3 (11.5) 8 (27.6) 0.335
Outcome at discharge (%)
 Favorable (mRS 0–2) 49 (48.5) 29 (63.0) 12 (46.2) 8 (27.6) 0.011
 Unfavorable (mRS 3–6) 52 (51.5) 17 (37.0) 14 (53.9) 21 (72.4)  
 Survive (%) 100 (99.0) 46 (100.0) 26 (100.0) 28 (96.6) 0.285
Duration of mechanical ventilator (day) 3 (2.0–11.0) 2 (1.0–3.0) 3 (1.8–6.0) 7 (3.5–14.0) < 0.001
Length of ICU stay (day) 17 (15–19) 17 (13–19) 16 (14–17) 17 (15–19) 0.682
Length of hospital stay (day) 27 (23–37) 28 (22–36) 28 (24–35) 27 (23–42) 0.892
Duration of physical restraint (h) 11 (0–48) 0 (0–0) 20 (13–36) 48 (48–48) < 0.001
  1. Data are presented as medians (interquartile range, IQR) for continuous variables and N (percentage) for categorical variables
  2. WFNS World Federation Neurological Surgeons, mRS modified Rankin scale, ICU Intensive care unit
  3. aInternal carotid artery aneurysm: including posterior communicating region
  4. bPosterior circulation: including the vertebral artery, basilar artery, cerebellar arteries, and posterior cerebral artery