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Table 1 Factors affecting energy expenditure in critical illness

From: Energy expenditure and indirect calorimetry in critical illness and convalescence: current evidence and practical considerations

↑ Energy expenditure ↓ Energy expenditure
■ Caucasian ethnicity
■ Overfeeding
■ Physical exercise, agitation
■ ↑ Minute volume
■ Hyperthermia
■ Hyperthyroidism
■ Metabolic acidosis
■ Stress (cortisol, glucagon, norepinephrine)
■ Systemic inflammation, sepsis
■ Burns
■ Female sex
■ Older age
■ ↓ Lean body mass
■ Prolonged fasting, underfeeding
■ Paralysis, coma
■ ↓ Minute volume
■ Hypothermia
■ Hypothyroidism
■ Metabolic alkalosis
■ Medication: β-blockers, sedatives, muscle relaxants
  1. Adapted from [1, 8, 19, 25, 55]. Symbols: ↑, increase(d); ↓, decrease(d)