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Table 2 Mixed-effects model analysis for sedation, pain, withdrawal and delirium

From: Music Use for Sedation in Critically ill Children (MUSiCC trial): a pilot randomized controlled trial

Variables Control
Mean (SD)
Music
Mean (SD)
Mixed-effects model Effect size
(95% CI)
P value Noise cancellation
Mean (SD)
Mixed-effects model Effect size
(95% CI)
P value
Sedation intensity Score/day 47.6 (26.0) 53.7 (36.9) 7.08 (− 7.56, 21.73) 0.340 55.6 (26.1) 6.63 (− 8.02, 21.25) 0.371
Sedation frequency/day 8.58 (6.11) 9.75 (7.10) 1.43 (− 1.71, 4.58) 0.368 10.9 (8.14) 1.71 (− 1.45, 4.84) 0.282
SBS − 0.76 (0.87) − 0.74 (0.95) 0.12 (− 0.32, 0.56) 0.595 − 0.53 (0.96) 0.06 (− 0.37, 0.50) 0.772
FLACC 1.30 (1.36) 1.17 (1.26) − 0.08 (− 0.71, 0.55) 0.796 1.62 (1.72) 0.10 (− 0.53, 0.73) 0.751
WAT-1 1.12 (1.17) 1.85 (1.54) 0.82 (0.15, 1.49) 0.020 1.65 (1.14) 0.48 (− 0.19, 1.14) 0.166
CAPD 12.47 (4.56) 13.09 (5.54) 1.18 (− 1.45, 3.81) 0.384 13.86 (4.66) 1.70 (− 0.86, 4.27) 0.199
  1. SBS State Behavioral Scale (scale range from − 3 to + 2 with higher score indicating more agitation), FLACC Face Legs Activity Cry Consolability scale (scale range from 0 to 10 with higher score indicating higher pain), WAT-1 Withdrawal Assessment Tool (scores range from 0 to 12 with higher score indicating more withdrawal symptoms), CAPD Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium (score ranges from 0 to 32 with higher score indicating higher risk of delirium)