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Table 2 Risk of bias for each included study assessed using the ROBINS-I tool [26]

From: Ensuring competency in focused cardiac ultrasound: a systematic review of training programs

  Bias due to confounding Bias due to selection of participants Bias due to classification of interventions Bias due to deviations from intended interventions Bias due to missing outcome data Bias due to outcome measurements Bias due to selection of results reported Overall risk of bias
Alexander 2004 [36] Critical Moderate Low Moderate Serious Moderate Moderate Critical
Beraud 2013 [37] Critical Serious Moderate Serious Moderate Serious Moderate Critical
Caronia 2013 [38] Critical Critical Low Moderate Moderate Serious Moderate Critical
Carrie 2015 [39] Critical Serious Low Moderate Low Serious Moderate Critical
Chisholm 2013 [40] Critical Critical Low Critical Serious Serious Moderate Critical
Croft 2006 [41] Critical Moderate Low Moderate Low Critical Moderate Critical
Farsi 2017 [42] Critical Critical Moderate NI Moderate Serious Moderate Critical
Ferrada 2011 [43] Critical Critical Low Low Moderate Critical Moderate Critical
Gaudet 2016 [44] Critical NI Moderate Moderate Serious Moderate Moderate Critical
Hellmann 2005 [45] Critical Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Moderate Critical
Johnson 2016 [46] Critical Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Serious Moderate Critical
Labbe 2016 [47] Critical Moderate Low Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Critical
Lucas 2009 [48] Critical Moderate Low Low Low Moderate Moderate Critical
Manasia 2005 [49] Critical NI Serious Serious Low Serious Serious Critical
Martin 2007 [50] Critical Serious Moderate Moderate Low Serious Moderate Critical
Mjolstad 2013 [51] Critical Moderate Low Serious Low Critical Moderate Critical
Mozzini 2014 [52] Critical Moderate Serious Critical Serious Critical Serious Critical
Ruddox 2013 [53] Critical Moderate Low Moderate Moderate Critical Moderate Critical
Ruddox 2017 [54] Critical Serious Low Moderate Critical Critical Moderate Critical
See 2014 [55] Critical Moderate Low Serious Moderate Moderate Moderate Critical
Smith 2018 [56] Critical Serious Moderate Critical Moderate Moderate Moderate Critical
Vignon 2011 [57] Critical Moderate Low Moderate Moderate Serious Moderate Critical
Yan 2018 [58] Critical Moderate Low Moderate Low Critical Moderate Critical
  1. NI No information to make a fair assessment