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Table 2 Main results—ICU ventilation data, complications, and outcomes

From: Factors influencing liberation from mechanical ventilation in coronavirus disease 2019: multicenter observational study in fifteen Italian ICUs

  All patients Successful liberation from MV 28d Unsuccessful liberation from MV 28d  
Initial ventilatory variables a n = 240 a n = 93 a n = 147 a p
Tidal volume set - mL/kg IBW (IQR) 7.1 (6.5–7.8) 7 (6.5–7.9) 7.1 (6.4–7.7) 0.932
PEEP set - cmH2O (IQR) 12 (10–14) 12 (10–14) 12 (10–14) 0.466
Pplat - cmH2O (IQR) 25 (22–27) 25 (22–27) 25 (22–28) 0.662
CRS in supine position - mL/cmH2O (IQR) 38 (32–47) 39 (32–48) 37 (31–47) 0.297
CRS in supine position < 40 mL/cmH2O – no (%) 132 (55%) 49 (52.7%) 83 (56.5%) 0.567
Mechanical ventilation - first 5 days n = 391 n = 165 n = 226 p
Highest FiO2 set for at least 12 h - % (IQR) 70 (60–80) 70 (60–80) 75 (60–90) < 0.001
Lowest PaO2/FiO2 ratio in supine position - (IQR) 100 (76–132) 113 (90–145) 94 (68–123) < 0.001
PaO2/FiO2 class     < 0.001b
200–300 - no (%) 15 (3.8%) 6 (3.6%) 9 (4.0%)  
100–200 - no (%) 195 (49.9%) 106 (64.2%) 89 (39.4%)  
< 100 - no (%) 181 (46.3%) 53 (32.1%) 128 (56.6%)  
Lowest static CRS - mL/cmH2O (IQR) 37 (30–45) 40 (33–47) 35 (30–43) < 0.001
CRS < 40 mL/cmH2O - no (%) 225 (57.5%) 77 (46.7%) 148 (65.5%) < 0.001
ICU stay variables n = 391 n = 165 n = 226 p
Liberation from mechanical ventilation - no (%) 208 (53.2%) 165 (100%) 43 (19%)
VFD 28 days - d (IQR) 14 (9–19) 14 (9–19) 0
Duration of MV - d (IQR) 16 (10–27) 14 (9 –19) 20 (11–33) < 0.001
Alivec (n = 250) – d (IQR) 17 (10–30) 14 (9–19) 35 (29–46.5) < 0.001
Extubation - no (%) 89 (22.8%) 81 (49%) 8 (3.5%) < 0.001
Tracheotomy - no (%) 224 (57.3%) 83 (50.3%) 141 (62.4%) 0.022
Time from first tracheal intubation to tracheotomy - d (IQR) 9 (5–12) 7 (4–11) 9 (6–13) 0.002
Length of ICU stay - days (IQR) 20 (13–32) 18 (14–27) 21 (11–38) 0.111
Alived (n = 250) - days (IQR) 24 (15–38) 18 (14–27) 42 (32–51) < 0.001
Dead (n = 141) - days (IQR) 15 (8–22) 0 15 (8–22)
Post extubation eventsc n = 89 n = 81 n = 8 p
Extubation failure within 48 h - no (%) 9 (10.1%) 5 (6.1%) 4 (50%) < 0.001
Extubation failure over 48 h - no (%) 7 (7.9%) 3 (3.7%) 4 (50%) < 0.001
NIV/CPAP after extubation - no (%) 51 (57.3%) 43 (53%) 8 (100%) 0.017
HFNO after extubation - no (%) 5 (5.6%) 9 (11%) 1 (12.5%) 0.980
ICU Complications n = 391 n = 165 n = 226 p
Cardiovascular - no (%) 66 (16.9%) 10 (6.1%) 56 (24.8%) < 0.001
Neurologic - no (%) 25 (6.4%) 7 (4.2%) 18 (8.0%) 0.137
Gastroenteric - no (%) 20 (5.1%) 6 (3.6%) 14 (6.2%) 0.257
Need for renal replacement therapy - no (%) 76 (19.4%) 13 (7.9%) 63 (27.9%) < 0.001
Early onset VAP - no (%) 76 (19.4%) 29 (17.6%) 47 (20.8%) 0.427
Lateonset VAP - no (%) 175 (44.8%) 49 (29.7%) 126 (55.8%) < 0.001
Non-pulmonary infections - no (%) 112 (28.6%) 35 (21.2%) 77 (34.1%) 0.005
Still in ICU at the end of observation - no (%) 39 (9.7%) 4 (2.4%) 35 (15.5%) < 0.001
ICU mortalityd - no (%) 141 (36.1%) 0 (0%) 141 (62.4%) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: IBW ideal body weight, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, Pplat plateau pressure, CRS respiratory system compliance measured in a supine position, FiO2 inspired fraction of oxygen, PaO2 arterial oxygen partial pressure, MV mechanical ventilation, NIV non-invasive ventilation, CPAP continuous positive airway pressure, HFNO high flow nasal oxygen, VFD ventilator-free days, VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia
  2. aIncomplete data due to transfer from other ICUs without complete medical records
  3. bp value referred to Pearson’s chi-square test performed on the contingency table represented cThe percentages of extubation failures and NIV/CPAP/HFNO use after extubation are referred to the total number of the patients extubated
  4. dPatients discharged alive from ICU or still in ICU at the end of observation