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Table 2 Infusion volume, electrolyte and glucose abnormalities, acute kidney injury, and other outcomes

From: Saline versus 5% dextrose in water as a drug diluent for critically ill patients: a retrospective cohort study

  Total (N = 844) D5W (n = 365) Saline (n = 479) p value
Observation period, days 3.99 (2.87–6.80) 3.89 (2.88–6.44) 4.13 (2.86–7.00) 0.233
Continuous infusion
 Saline, mL 4 (0–145) 0 (0–126) 27 (0–164) 0.009
 D5W, mL 254 (50–608) 257 (68–557) 253 (42–634) 0.851
 Other crystalloids, mL 2492 (1506–3586) 2525 (1658–3620) 2430 (1359–3568) 0.427
Intermittent infusion
 Saline, mL 650 (150–1326) 150 (0–450) 1000 (650–1750) < 0.001
 D5W, mL 387 (0–916) 800 (535–1365) 0 (0–250) < 0.001
 Other crystalloids, mL 0 (0–500) 0 (0–500) 0 (0–500) 0.336
Total infusion, mL 4845 (3443–6,762) 4697 (3475–6502) 4883 (3381–6988) 0.541
 Saline, mL 795 (250–1759) 207 (50–700) 1150 (700–2050) < 0.001
 D5W, mL 770 (312–1493) 1220 (752–1896) 418 (170–1003) < 0.001
 Other crystalloids, mL 2802 (1702–3988) 2850 (1894–3896) 2759 (1513–4036) 0.423
Hyperglycemiaa 374/655 (57.1) 161/285 (56.5) 213/370 (57.6) 0.811
Hypernatremiab 160/735 (21.8) 47/321 (14.6) 113/414 (27.3) < 0.001
Blood glucose SD, mg/dLc 22 (17–30) 21 (16–29) 23 (17–30) 0.235
Hypoglycemiad 88/833 (10.6) 29/359 (8.1) 59/474 (12.0) 0.053
Hyponatremiae 95/723 (13.1) 44/313 (14.1) 51/410 (12.4) 0.579
Hyperchloremiaf 160/533 (30.0) 45/221 (20.4) 115/312 (36.9) < 0.001
AKI diagnosisg 377/639 (59.0) 165/283 (58.3) 212/356 (59.5) 0.808
AKI maximum stageg     0.826
 Stage 1 204 (54.1) 85 (51.5) 119 (56.1)  
 Stage 2 132 (35.0) 61 (37.0) 71 (33.5)  
 Stage 3 41 (10.9) 19 (11.6) 22 (10.4)  
RRT requirementg 20 (3.1) 6 (2.1) 14 (3.9) 0.254
ICU LOS, days 4.0 (2.9–6.8) 3.9 (2.9–6.4) 4.1 (2.9–7.3) 0.269
Hospital LOS, days 38 (23–62) 40 (24–62) 37 (23–62) 0.497
ICU mortality 50 (5.9) 24 (6.6) 26 (5.4) 0.557
Hospital mortality 125 (14.8) 56 (15.3) 69 (14.4) 0.769
  1. Data are presented as median (interquartile range) or number (%)
  2. AKI acute kidney injury, D5W dextrose 5% in water, ICU intensive care unit, LOS length of stay, RRT renal replacement therapy, SD standard deviation
  3. aPatients with baseline blood glucose ≥ 180 mg/dL were excluded (189 patients)
  4. bPatients with baseline sodium ≥ 145 mmol/L were excluded (109 patients)
  5. cPatients with blood glucose < 70 mg/dL or ≥ 180 mg/dL were excluded (200 patients)
  6. dPatients with baseline blood glucose < 70 mg/dL were excluded (11 patients)
  7. ePatients with baseline sodium < 135 mmol/L were excluded (121 patients)
  8. fPatients with baseline chloride ≥ 110 mmol/L were excluded (311 patients)
  9. gPatients who received a diagnosis of AKI at ICU admission were excluded (205 patients)