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Table 1 Etiologies of life-threatening hemoptysis

From: Management of life-threatening hemoptysis

Intrinsic pulmonary parenchymal disease
 BronchiectasisSarcoidosis, cystic fibrosis, tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacterial, fungal
 Pulmonary infectionsTuberculosis, fungal, necrotizing pneumonia, mycetoma, lung abscess, parasitic infection (Paragonimus westermani)
 Pulmonary malignancyBronchogenic carcinoma, endobronchial metastases, bronchial adenoma
 Pulmonary vascularNon-iatrogenic: arteriovenous malformation, subepithelial bronchial artery (Dieulafoy), aortic aneurysm with erosion, pulmonary embolism (septic or thrombotic)
Iatrogenic injuries: Pulmonary artery injury from pulmonary artery catheter, aortobronchial fistula due to aortic graft or stent, airway stent, biopsy complications from bronchoscopic procedures
 Pulmonary traumaPenetrating chest injury, blunt force chest injury
Medication and toxinsCocaine, bevacizumab, anticoagulants and antiplatelet medications, nitrogen dioxide
Collagen vascular diseases involving the lungSystemic lupus erythematosus, granulomatosis with polyangiitis or other vasculitides, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, idiopathic hemosiderosis, amyloidosis, Behcet disease
Cardiovascular diseasesPulmonary edema from heart failure, mitral stenosis, tricuspid endocarditis, congenital heart disease
Bleeding disordersDisseminated intravascular coagulation, thrombocytopenia, von Willebrand disease, platelet dysfunction