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Table 1 Characteristics of study cohort

From: Loss of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in septic shock is predominantly caused by decreased levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL)

Clinical parameter Control Surgical trauma Sepsis Septic shock P value*
n 7 20 63 17 N/A
Age, years 31 (24–52) 61 (51–68) 60 (49–70) 60 (54–72) ns
Male, n (%) 3 (42) 11 (55) 37 (62) 10 (58) ns
SOFA score N/A 4 (2–7) 5 (3–7) 11 (8–13) < 0.0001
Leucocytes, ×109/L 6.3 (5.8–7.9) 13.0 (12.0–15.1) 14.0 (9.9–18.5) 14.6 (9.4–24.9) ns
Interleukin-6, ng/L N/D 129.4 (61.7–263.3) 123.4 (46.2–304.5) 464.9 (132.7–1568) < 0.05#
Procalcitonin, μg/L N/D 0.81 (0.28–3.06) 0.73 (0.25–1.76) 4.19 (1.53–9.27) < 0.01#
C-reactive protein, mg/L 5.0 (5.0–5.5) 97.5 (68.2–190.8) 145 (72.0–239.0) 128 (100.5–222.0) ns
Lactat, mmol/L N/D 1.2 (0.92–1.7) 1.3 (1.0–1.6) 2.8 (2.2–5.4) < 0.0001
ICU length of stay, days N/A 2 (1–5) 7 (3–10) 13 (8–31) < 0.0001
Invasive ventilation, n (%) N/A 1 (5) 19 (30) 8 (47) < 0.01#
Dialysis, n (%) N/A 0 (0) 4 (6) 6 (35) < 0.001#
Died, n (%) N/A 0 (0) 10 (16) 5 (30) < 0.05#
  1. SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, ICU intensive care unit, N/A not applicable, N/D not determined, ns not significant. Data are presented as median (IQR). *P value for trend between patient groups using a non-parametric ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis test if not otherwise indicated. #Chi-square for trend analysis