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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Association of abnormal carbon dioxide levels with poor neurological outcomes in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a retrospective observational study

Variables All patients (N = 158) Unfavorable outcome group (N = 73) Favorable outcome group (N = 85) p value
Age (years) 62.9 ± 15.9 69.6 ± 15.1 57.1 ± 14.4 < 0.01
Sex (male) 52 (32.9) 23 (31.5) 29 (34.1) 0.74
H&K grade < 0.01
 I 13 (8.2) 3 (4.1) 10 (11.8)  
 II 60 (38.0) 14 (19.2) 46 (54.1)  
 III 41 (25.9) 22 (30.1) 19 (22.4)  
 IV 29 (18.4) 23 (31.5) 6 (7.1)  
 V 15 (9.5) 11 (15.1) 4 (4.7)  
Treatment modality 0.27
 Coil 117 (74.1) 58 (79.5) 59 (69.4)  
 Clip 39 (24.7) 14 (19.2) 25 (29.4)  
Number of arterial blood gas analyses on days 1–14 43 [31–55] 53 [39–56] 40 [28–48] < 0.01
Median PaCO2 on days 1–14 (mmHg) 39.0 [37.2–40.9] 38.4 [36.9–40.5] 39.4 [37.4–40.9] 0.11
SD of PaCO2 on days 1–14 3.63 [2.75–4.60] 4.05 [3.58–5.20] 2.97 [2.45–3.95] < 0.01
Proportion of PaCO2 ≤ 30 among all blood gas analyses on days 1–14 (%) 0 [0–2] 2 [0–5] 0 [0–0] < 0.01
Proportion of PaCO2 < 35 among all blood gas analyses on days 1–14 (%) 14 [3–26] 21 [9–35] 9 [2–22] < 0.01
Proportion of PaCO2 > 45 among all blood gas analyses on days 1–14 (%) 4 [0–16] 7 [2–18] 2 [0–12] < 0.05
Maximum PaCO2 level on days 1–14 (mmHg) 47.4 [43.7–51.0] 49.4 [45.6–51.9] 45.8 [42.9–49.8] < 0.01
Minimum PaCO2 level on days 1–14 (mmHg) 31.0 [28.7–33.8] 29.4 [26.2–32.7] 31.7 [30.2–34.5] < 0.01
Use of mechanical ventilation 156 (98.7) 73 (100) 83 (97.6) 0.50
Modified Rankin scale score < 0.01
 0 29 (18.4) 0 (0.0) 29 (34.1)  
 1 27 (17.1) 0 (0.0) 27 (31.8)  
 2 29 (18.4) 0 (0.0) 29 (34.1)  
 3 24 (15.2) 24 (32.9) 0 (0.0)  
 4 27 (17.1) 27 (37.0) 0 (0.0)  
 5 12 (7.6) 12 (16.4) 0 (0.0)  
 6 10 (6.3) 10 (13.7) 0 (0.0)  
DCI 23 (14.6) 16 (21.9) 7 (8.2) < 0.05
Mechanical ventilation duration 2 [1–9] 9 [2–16] 1 [1–2] < 0.01
ICU stay duration 15 [12–19] 17 [13–21] 14 [12–16] < 0.01
Hospital stay duration 28 [22–51] 41 [26–74] 24 [21–30] < 0.01
Hospital mortality 10 (6.3) 10 (13.7) 0 (0.0) < 0.01
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD), number (percentage), or median [interquartile range]
  2. H&K Hunt and Kosnik, DCI Delayed cerebral ischemia, ICU Intensive care unit