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Table 6 Risk factors for AKI development in heart failure

From: The Japanese Clinical Practice Guideline for acute kidney injury 2016

Reference Author, year Independent risk factors
Aging Diabetes Cardiac dysfunction Cerebrovascular disease CKD (renal dysfunction) Proteinuria NGAL elevation NT-pro-BNP elevation Diuretics dose/resistance Hypertension (> 160 mmHg) Hypotension (< 90 mmHg) Hyponatremia (< 130 mmol/L) ≥ 3 admissions for AHF Hemoconcentration by diuretics
[70] Amin et al. 2010          
[71] Wang et al. 2013           
[72] Zhou et al. 2012           
[73] Soyler et al. 2015               
[422] Testani et al. 2010              
[75] Aghel et al. 2010               
[423] Pfister et al. 2010               
[76] Belziti et al. 2010              
  1. CKD chronic kidney disease, BNP brain-type natriuretic peptide
  2. indicates independent risk factors by multivariable analysis