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Table 2 Associations between limitations on life support on ICU admission and patient and hospital characteristics. Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI)

From: Limitation of life support techniques at admission to the intensive care unit: a multicenter prospective cohort study

  Limitations, n = 238 No limitations, n = 2804 Model A aOR (95% CI) Model B aOR (95% CI)
Patient characteristics
 Age 73.0 ± 13.5 61.6 ± 16.0 1.04 (1.03–1.06) 1.05 (1.03–1.06)
 Female sex 106 (44.5%) 1000 (35.6%) 1.30 (0.93–1.81) 1.30 (0.92–1.78)
 Reason for ICU admission     
  Other
  Sepsis
  Coma or encephalopathy
  Worsening of chronic disease
77 (32.3%)
33 (13.9%)
61 (25.6%)
67 (28.1%)
1816 (64.8%)
377 (13.4%)
326 (11.6%)
285 (10.2%)
1
0.94 (0.57–1.57)
3.96 (2.50–6.30)
2.34 (1.50–3.66)
1
0.97 (0.58–1.62)
3.88 (2.45–6.13)
2.34 (1.50–3.66)
 Predicted risk of death (%) 46.3 [24.0–63.9] 12.0 [5.1–29.0] 1.03 (1.02–1.04) 1.03 (1.02–1.04)
Prior functional Knaus status:
 Class A
 Class B
 Class C
 Class D
37 (15.5%)
96 (40.3%)
76 (31.9%)
29 (12.2%)
1708 (60.9%)
848 (30.2%)
211 (7.5%)
34 (1.2%)
1
3.80 (2.44–5.92)
13.44 (8.00–22.58)
36.94 (17.34–78.71)
1
3.71 (2.39–5.77)
13.30 (7.93–22.32)
36.77 (17.29–78.20)
Hospital characteristics
 Intermediate care unit available
  Yes
  No
43 (18.1%)
195 (81.9%)
826 (29.4%)
1978 (70.5%)
  1
1.85 (1.00–3.44)
 Patients with limitations on life support outside the ICU
  Yes
  No
143 (60.1%)
95 (39.9%)
1928 (68.7%)
876 (31.2%)
  1
2.57 (1.45–4.57)
 Hospital variance (SE)
 LR test; p value
   0.765 (0.271)
54.38; p < 0.001
0.453 (0.191)
24.69; p < 0.001
Intraclass correlation coefficient   0.189 0.121
Median odds ratio (95% CI)   2.30 (1.59–2.96) 1.90 (1.31–2.38)
  1. Mean ± standard deviation; n (row %); median [interquartile range]; SE standard error
  2. Model A—random effects multilevel logistic regression model with hospital as a second-level variable (random effect) and the patient characteristics as first-level variables
  3. Model B—random effects multilevel logistic regression model with hospital as a second-level variable (random effect) and the patient and center characteristics as first-level variables