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Table 1 Patient demographics and clinical factors by primary stroke etiology (hemorrhagic or ischemic)

From: Early versus late tracheostomy after decompressive craniectomy for stroke

  Total ICH Ischemic p value
N 168 131 (78%) 37 (22%)  
Age, mean (SD) 55.3 (15.3) 55.3 (16.2) 55.2 (12.0) 0.116
Male 91 (54%) 65 (50%) 26 (70%) 0.039
Race
 White 86 (57%) 68 (59%) 18 (53%) 0.547
 African American 51 (34%) 37 (32%) 14 (41%)  
 Other 13 (9%) 11 (9%) 2 (6%)  
BMI, mean (SD) 28.1 (7.4) 27.6 (7.6) 29.7 (6.2) 0.148
Myocardial infarction 8 (5%) 6 (5%) 2 (5%) 1.000
Congestive heart failure 9 (5%) 3 (2%) 6 (16%) 0.004
Peripheral vascular disease 11 (7%) 6 (5%) 5 (13%) 0.067
Dementia 1 (1%) 1 (1%) 0 (0%) 1.000
Cerebrovascular disease 23 (14%) 19 (15%) 4 (11%) 0.787
Chronic lung disease 17 (10%) 14 (11%) 3 (8%) 0.766
Ulcer 3 (2%) 3 (2%) 0 (0%) 1.000
Chronic liver disease 6 (4%) 6 (5%) 0 (0%) 0.340
Diabetes 30 (18%) 18 (14%) 12 (32%) 0.015
Moderate–severe kidney disease 13 (8%) 13 (10%) 0 (0%) 0.074
Diabetes with organ damage 4 (2%) 4 (3%) 0 (0%) 0.577
Tumor 10 (6%) 9 (7%) 1 (3%) 0.461
Leukemia 3 (2%) 3 (2%) 0 (0%) 1.000
Lymphoma 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) NA
Moderate–severe liver disease 1 (1%) 1 (1%) 0 (0%) 1.000
Malignant tumor 9 (5%) 8 (6%) 1 (3%) 0.685
Metastasis 5 (3%) 5 (4%) 0 (0%) 0.588
AIDS 3 (2%) 1 (1%) 2 (5%) 0.124
Hosp. LOS, mean (SD) 25.8 (27.0) 27.1 (29.2) 21.2 (16.2) 0.246
Discharge location
 SNF 35 (27.8%) 26 (26.8%) 9 (31.0%) 0.560
 AIR 54 (42.9%) 40 (41.2%) 14 (48.3%)  
 Home 25 (19.8%) 22 (22.7%) 3 (10.3%)  
 LTAC 10 (7.9%) 7 (7.2%) 3 (10.3%)  
 Hospice 2 (1.6%) 2 (2.1%) 0 (0.0%)  
Discharge condition
 Alive 126 (75.0%) 97 (74.0%) 29 (78.4%) 0.671
 Dead without comfort care 5 (3.0%) 4 (3.1%) 1 (2.7%)  
 Dead with comfort care 37 (22.0%) 30 (22.9%) 7 (18.9%)  
ICU LOS, mean (SD) 15.1 (16.2) 16.0 (17.7) 11.9 (8.8) 0.190
Readmission to ICU 37 (22.2%) 26 (20.0%) 11 (29.7%) 0.261
GCS on adm., mean (SD) 9.3 (3.7) 8.9 (3.8) 10.6 (3.2) 0.012
Admission mRS, mean (SD) 4.9 (0.4) 4.9 (0.5) 5.0 (0.0) 0.068
SOFA score, mean (SD) 6.5 (2.8) 6.6 (2.8) 6.1 (2.7) 0.331
NIHSS, mean (SD) 18.3 (7.2) 18.3 (7.2) NA
Location
 Bilateral supratentorial 8 (4.8%) 8 (6.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0.456
 Infratentorial 32 (19.0%) 24 (18.3%) 8 (21.6%)  
 Left supratentorial 57 (33.9%) 45 (34.4%) 12 (32.4%)  
 Right supratentorial 71 (42.3%) 54 (41.2%) 17 (45.9%)  
ICH score, mean (SD) 1.81 (0.95) 1.81 (0.95) NA
IVH 62 (48.1%) 62 (48.1%) NA
Hydrocephalus 88 (68.8%) 88 (68.8%)  
Time to surgery, mean (SD) 1.70 (3.6) 1.70 (3.9) 1.68 (2.4) 0.969
Time to ventilator, mean (SD) 0.65 (2.4) 0.63 (2.7) 0.73 (1.3) 0.821
Duration of ventilator, mean (SD) 8.1 (7.7) 8.8 (8.1) 5.9 (5.4) 0.051
# failed weans, mean (SD) 0.37 (0.56) 0.36 (0.57) 0.38 (0.55) 0.873
Tracheostomy 48 (28.6%) 37 (28.2%) 11 (29.7%) 0.840
Hosp tracheostomy day, mean (SD) 13.8 (7.2) 14.4 (7.9) 11.8 (4.0) 0.301
Duration tracheostomy, mean (SD) 29.8 (28.3) 30.2 (27.2) 28.3 (33.3) 0.912
Tracheostomy at discharge 39 (81.3%) 28 (75.7%) 11 (100%) 0.070
Total TRACH score 2.3 (2.4) 2.3 (2.4) NA
Number of VAP, mean (SD) 0.56 (1.22) 0.59 (1.27) 0.46 (1.04) 0.574
Hospital VAP day, mean (SD) 9.5 (11.2) 9.2 (11.6) 10.3 (10.6) 0.826
Tracheostomy VAP day, mean (SD) − 2 (16.6) − 4.2 (17.8) 3.2 (13.4) 0.421
  1. AIR acute inpatient rehabilitation, GCS Glasgow Coma Score, ICU intensive care unit, LOS length of stay, LTAC long-term acute care, SD standard deviation, SNF skilled nursing facility, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment