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Table 1 Epidemiology of pediatric sepsis in multicenter studies in developed countries since 2003

From: Update on pediatric sepsis: a review

Authors, year Country Design
Data source
Settings Age Incidence/prevalence Mortality
Watson et al. 2003 [1] USA
7 states
Retrospective
Hospital discharge database
ICD-9a coding & modified Angus criteria
1995
≤19 years Incidence 0.56 per 1000 population (1995) Hospital 10.3%
Hartman et al. 2013 [14] USA
7 states
Retrospective
Hospital discharge database
ICD-9a coding & modified Angus criteria
1995, 2000, 2005
≤19 years Incidence 0.89 per 1000 population (2005) Hospital 8.9% (2005)
Ruth et al. 2014 [17] USA
43 PICUs
Retrospective
PHISb database
ICD-9a coding & modified Angus criteria
2004–2012
≤18 years Prevalence
6.2% (2004) to 7.7% (2012)
Hospital 14.4%;
18.9% (2004) to 12.0% (2012)
Wolfler et at. 2008 [23] Italia
15 PICUs
Prospective Proulx’s criteriac
2004–2005
≤16 years Incidence
Severe sepsis 1.6%
Septic shock 2.1%
ICU
Severe sepsis 17.7%
Septic shockd 50.8%
Shime et al. 2011 [22] Japan
9 PICUs
Prospective Severe sepsis ≤15 years Prevalence 1.4% 28-day 18.9%
Schlapbach et al. 2015 [18] Australia/New Zealand
9 PICUs & 22 mixed ICUs
Retrospective
dANZPIC registry
Invasive infection, sepsis, septic shock
2002–2013
<16 years Prevalence
Invasive infection 6.9%
Sepsis 2.9%
Septic shock 2.1%
ICU
Invasive infection 3.9%
Sepsis 5.6%
Septic shock 17.0%
Weiss et al. 2015 (SPROUT) [19] 26 countries worldwide
128 PICUs
Point prevalence Severe sepsis
5 days, 2013–2014
<18 years Prevalence 8.2% eICU 23%
eHospital 24%
  1. a ICD-9 International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision
  2. b PHIS Pediatric Health Information Systems
  3. cProulx’s definition of septic shock was different from Goldstein’s definition, now common in the world. Briefly, Proulx’s septic shock necessitated hypotension despite 20 mls/kg of fluid administration, while Goldstein’s septic shock is defined as inadequate perfusion, regardless of blood pressure, after 40 mls/kg of fluid resuscitation
  4. d ANZPIC Australian and New Zealand Paediatric Intensive Care
  5. eThese mortality rates were only for the sites in the developed world