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Table 1 Examples of items/equipment with reported contaminating bacteria in ICU

From: Bacterial contamination of inanimate surfaces and equipment in the intensive care unit

Contaminated item/equipment in ICU Microorganisms References
ECG leads VRE Falk et al. (2000) [4]
Coagulase-negative staphylococci,
P. aeruginosa
Lestari et al. (2013) [40]
Blood pressure cuffs S. aureus (MRSA) Matsuo et al. (2013) [66]
Ventilator (e.g., buttons, circuits) S. aureus
P. aeruginosa
Sui et al. (2012) [46]
Suction system switches S. aureus,
P. aeruginosa
Sui et al. (2012) [46]
Medical charts Coagulase-negative staphylococci,
A. baumannii,
K. pneumoniae
Teng et al. (2009) [38]
Portable radiograph equipment S. aureus (MRSA),
VRE,
A. baumannii,
K. pneumoniae,
P. aeruginosa
Levin et al. (2009) [12]
Ultrasound machine S. aureus (MRSA, MSSA),
Coagulase-negative staphylococci,
P. aeruginosa,
A. baumannii,
Corinenebacterium spp.,
Bacillus spp.
Shokoohi et al. (2015) [20]
Koibuchi et al. (2013) [57]
Bed rails A. baumannii Catalano et al. (1999) [67]
Stethoscopes S. aureus,
A. baumannii
Whittington et al. (2009) [45]
White coats/scrubs A. baumannii Munoz-Price et al. (2012) [68]
Telephone/cell phones A. baumannii Borer et al. (2005)
Coagulase-negative staphylococci,
S. aureus,
Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria
Ulger et al. (2009) [13]
Computer keyboards Coagulase-negative staphylococci,
Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria
Rutala et al. (2006) [69]
Handwashing sink Klebsiella spp. Roux et al. (2013) [70]
  1. MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MSSA methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, VRE vancomycin-resistant enterococci