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Table 1 The comparison between the infectious and non-infectious groups

From: Procalcitonin for the differential diagnosis of infectious and non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome after cardiac surgery

  Infectious SIRS (n = 47) Non-infectious SIRS (n = 95) p value
Age (year) 67.8 ± 15.7 67.2 ± 13.3 0.81
Gender, n (%)    0.77
 Male 32 (68.1) 67 (70.5)  
 Female 15 (31.9) 28 (29.5)  
Type of surgery, n (%)    
 Valve surgery 16 (34.0) 36 (37.9) 0.65
 CABG 9 (19.1) 11 (11.6) 0.22
 Vessel replacement 13 (27.7) 21 (22.7) 0.47
 VAD 3 (6.4) 1 (1.1) 0.11
 Interventional therapy 1 (2.1) 14 (14.7) 0.02
 Complex surgery 5 (10.6) 12 (12.6) 0.73
BMI, kg/m2 21.8 (20.0,26.7) 22.7 (20.4,24.7) 0.64
Concomitant disease, n (%)    
 Diabetes mellitus 18 (38.3) 25 (26.3) 0.14
 Hypertension 20 (42.6) 35 (36.8) 0.51
 CKD 19 (40.4) 21 (22.1) 0.02
CPB duration, min 197.2 ± 142.5 173.6 ± 123.5 0.31
Aortic cross clamping, min 99.0 ± 100.1 98.3 ± 84.7 0.96
Operation time, min 508.9 ± 192.4 466.3 ± 174.9 0.19
Blood loss, mL 3,512 ± 3,150 3,189 ± 2,706 0.53
APACHE II 19.0 (15.0,25.0) 11.0 (9.0,14.0) 0.001
SOFA 7.0 ± 2.6 5.1 ± 2.1 0.001
PCT, ng/mL 2.80 (1.24,10.20) 0.10 (0.06,0.21) 0.001
WBC, ×103/μL 15.5 (11.0,22.6) 9.3 (7.2,12.6) 0.001
CRP, mg/dL 15.8 (12.0,19.9) 5.8 (2.5,8.9) 0.001
ICU stay, day 23.0 (12.0,52.0) 5.0 (3.0,6.0) 0.001
Hospital stay, day 82.0 (37.0,149.0) 31.0 (23.0,45.0) 0.001
MV duration, h 264.0 (40.0,999.0) 17.0 (10.0,39.0) 0.001
CRRT, n (%) 26 (55.3) 5 (5.3) 0.001
PMX-DHP, n (%) 18 (38.3) 0 0.001
ECMO, n (%) 13 (27.7) 0 0.001
DIC, n (%) 23 (48.9) 0 0.001
30-Day mortality, n (%) 3 (6.38) 0 0.035
Hospital mortality, n (%) 22 (46.8) 0 0.001
  1. CABG coronary artery bypass graft, VAD ventricular assist device, BMI body mass index, CKD chronic kidney disease, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, APACHE II acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, MV mechanical ventilation, CRRT continuous renal replacement therapy, PMX-DHP polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column direct hemoperfusion, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation.