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Table 2 Comparison between the favorable and unfavorable outcome groups

From: Neurological outcomes after extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a retrospective observational study in a rural tertiary care center

  Favorable outcome (n = 10) Unfavorable outcome (n = 40) P value
Age, years 48 ± 18 52 ± 22 0.642
10–29 years, n (%) 2 (4) 7 (14) 0.224
30–49 years, n (%) 2 (4) 12 (24)  
50–69 years, n (%) 6 (12) 12 (24)  
70+ years, n (%) 0 (0) 9 (18)  
Male, n 5 28 0.277
Witnessed, n (%) 7 (14) 29 (58) 1.000
Bystander CPR, n (%) 4 (8) 28 (56) 0.138
Initial rhythms at the scene    
  VF/pulseless VT, n (%) 9 (18) 28 (56) 0.258
  Asystole/PEA, n (%) 1 (2) 12 (24)  
Initial rhythms on arrival    
  VF/pulseless VT, n (%) 8 (16) 19 (38) 0.085
  Asystole/PEA, n (%) 2 (4) 21 (42)  
BLS-TOR rule    
  Satisfied, n (%) 0 (0) 7 (14) 0.319
  Unsatisfied, n (%) 10 (20) 33 (66)  
ALS-TOR rule    
  Satisfied, n (%) 0 (0) 1 (2) 1.000
  Unsatisfied, n (%) 10 (20) 39 (78)  
Comorbid diseases    
  Cardiac diseases, n (%) 1 (2) 12 (24) 0.258
  Other, n (%) 1 (2) 2 (4) 0.496
Complications of ECPR, n (%) 0 (0) 6 (12) 0.571
Body temperature, °C 29.9 ± 6.1 31.8 ± 4.7 0.303
Pupil diameter, mm 5.1 ± 2.0 5.4 ± 1.4 0.501
Positive light reflex, n (%) 2 (4) 6 (12) 0.653
Laboratory data on arrival    
  Arterial blood pH 7.10 ± 0.08 6.87 ± 0.25 <0.001
  PaCO2, mmHg 52 ± 21 85 ± 37 0.010
  PaO2, mmHg 150 ± 129 86 ± 99 0.096
  Base excess, mEq/L −14.7 ± 3.8 −19.3 ± 7.7 0.014
  Lactate, mg/dL 101 ± 27 136 ± 56 0.061
  Serum potassium, mEq/L 4.7 ± 1.7 4.8 ± 1.6 0.768
Circulatory arrest time, min 4.7 ± 5.8 8.1 ± 11.2 0.355
CPR duration, min 78 ± 46 85 ± 49 0.647
Door to ECPR initiation, min 30 ± 20 39 ± 23 0.231
ECMO duration, h 46 ± 46 36 ± 49 0.536
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or mean ± standard deviation. CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, VF ventricular fibrillation, VT ventricular tachycardia, PEA pulseless electrical activity, BLS basic life support, ALS advanced life support, TOR termination of resuscitation, ECPR extracorporeal cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.