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Table 2 Biomarkers of ARDS

From: Pathophysiology and biomarkers of acute respiratory distress syndrome

Name Change in ARDS Clinical prediction
Humoral mediators   
 Cytokines, growth factors   
  TNFα BALF↑ Poor outcome
  IL-1β BALF↑ Poor outcome
  IL-2 Blood↑ Development
  IL-4 Blood↑ Development
  IL-6 Blood↑, BALF↑ Poor outcome
  IL-8 Blood↑, BALF↑ Development and severity (BALF), poor outcome
  IL-18 Blood↑ Poor outcome
  VEGF ELF↑ Better outcome
  KGF BALF↑ Poor outcome
  GDF-15 Blood↑ Poor outcome
  Ang-2 Blood↑ Development, poor outcome
  Neutrophil elastase Blood↑ Development and severity
  Leptin BALF↑ Poor outcome
 Coagulation/fibrinolysis factors   
  PAI-1 Blood↑ Poor outcome
  Thrombomodulin Blood↑ Poor outcome
  von Willebrand factor Blood↑ Development
  Protein C Blood↓ Poor outcome
Substances released from injured or activated tissues   
 DAMPs   
  HMGB-1 Blood↑ Poor outcome
  DNA BALF↑ Poor outcome
 Endothelial cells   
  Soluble P-selectin Blood↑ Poor outcome
  Soluble ICAM-1 Blood↑ Poor outcome
 Epithelial cells   
  Soluble RAGE Blood↑ Poor outcome
  SP-B Blood↑ Development
  SP-D Blood↑ Poor outcome
  CC-16 Blood↑ Poor outcome
  Laminin γ2 ELF↑ Poor outcome
  KL-6 Blood↑, BALF↑ Poor outcome
  1. BALF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, ELF epithelial lining fluid, TNFα tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL interleukin, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor, KGF keratinocyte growth factor, GDF-15 growth differentiation factor-15, Ang-2 angiopoietin-2, PAI-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, DAMPs damage (danger)-associated molecular patterns, HMGB-1 high-mobility group box 1, ICAM-1 intercellular adhesion molecule 1, RAGE receptor for advanced glycation end products, SP surfactant protein, CC-16 Clara cell specific protein 16, KL-6 Krebs von den Lungen-6.