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Table 1 Representative pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their ligands

From: Pathophysiology and biomarkers of acute respiratory distress syndrome

Family Member PAMPs DAMPs
TLR TLR1 Lipopeptides, lipoarabinomannan Serum amyloid A protein
TLR2 Lipopeptides, LTA, lipoarabinomannan, mannan, virus structural protein, zymosan, β-glucan HMGB1, serum amyloid A protein
TLR3 dsRNA  
TLR4 LPS, virus structural protein HMGB1, HSP60, HSP70, S100, HA, fatty acid
TLR5 Flagellin  
TLR6 Lipopeptides, zymosan, β-glucan HA
TLR7 ssRNA  
TLR8 ssRNA  
TLR9 CpG-DNA Histone, mitochondrial DNA, self-DNA-containing immune complexes
NLRC4 Flagellin, bacterial secretion systems  
NLRP3 Pore-forming toxins, MDP Nucleic acid, ATP, uric acid, HA, silica
RLR RIG-I dsRNA Immunocomplex of snRNPs
Immunoglobulin superfamily RAGE   AGEs, HMGB-1, S100B, transthyretin, amyloid-β peptide, Mac-1 integrin
  1. PRRs pattern recognition receptors, PAMPs pathogen-associated molecular patterns, DAMPs damage (danger)-associated molecular patterns, TLR toll-like receptor, LTA lipoteichoic acid, HMGB-1 high-mobility group box 1, LPS lipopolysaccharide, HSP heat shock protein, HA hyaluronic acid, NLR nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor, DAP-type PGN diaminopimelic acid containing peptidoglycan, MDP muramyl dipeptide, NLRC4 NLR family CARD domain containing 4, NLRP3 NLR family pyrin domain containing 3, ATP adenosine triphosphate, RLR retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptor, RAGEs receptor for advanced glycation end products, AGEs advanced glycation end products.