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Table 2 Gram stain scoring for the diagnosis of VAP

From: Evaluation of semi-quantitative scoring of Gram staining or semi-quantitative culture for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a retrospective comparison with quantitative culture

  Sensitivity (%) Specificity (%) PPV (%) NPV (%) PLR NLR Kappa (95% CI)
≥1+ 95 61 77 90 2.4 0.08 0.59 (0.45–0.72)
≥2+ 77 86 88 73 5.5 0.27 0.62 (0.49–0.75)
≥3+ 42 96 94 57 10.5 0.6 0.35 (0.23–0.47)
≥4+ 20 96 89 47 5 0.83 0.15 (0.05–0.24)
  1. PPV positive predictive value, NPV negative predictive value, PLR positive likelihood ratio, NLR negative likelihood ratio.