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Table 1 Demographics of all patients, patients in the EM group, and the non-EM group

From: Optimal timing of introducing mobilization therapy for ICU patients with sepsis

Variable All patients (n = 296) Patients in the EM group (n = 96) Patients in the non-EM group (n = 200) P-value
Age (year), median [IQR] 75 [65–81] 74 [65–81] 75 [65–81] 0.90
Male sex, n (%) 200 (68%) 71 (74%) 129 (65%) 0.11
BMI (kg/m2), median [IQR] 21 [18–24] 22 [19–25] 21 [18–24] 0.13
Charlson Comorbidity Index, median [IQR] 2 [1–3] 2 [1–3] 2 [1–3] 0.39
APACHE II at ICU admission, median [IQR] 23 [19–28] 22 [18–27] 24 [20–28] 0.07
SOFA score at ICU admission, median [IQR]
 Total 8 [5–11] 7 [5–11] 9 [6–11] 0.09
 Respiratory 2 [1–3] 2 [1–3] 2 [1–3] 0.35
 Cardiovascular 3 [0–4] 3 [0–4] 4 [0–4] 0.01
 Liver 0 [0–1] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–1] 0.43
 Kidney 1 [0–2] 0 [0–2] 1 [0–2] 0.46
 Coagulation 1 [0–2] 1 [0–2] 1 [0–2] 0.53
 Nervous system 1 [0–2] 1 [0–2] 1 [0–2] 0.37
Main source of the infection, n (%)
 Abdomen 132 (45%) 41 (43%) 91 (46%) 0.71
 Respiratory tract 94 (32%) 37 (39%) 57 (29%) 0.09
 Urinary tract 31 (10%) 8 (8%) 23 (12%) 0.54
 Soft tissue infection 24 (8%) 5 (5%) 19 (10%) 0.26
 Others or unknown 15 (5%) 6 (6%) 10 (5%) 0.99
Admission to the ICU directly from the ED, n (%) 233 (79%) 75 (78%) 161 (79%) 0.88
Ambulatory dependence before the hospital admission, n (%) 48 (16%) 11 (11%) 37 (19%) 0.13
Septic shock at ICU admission, n (%) 190 (64%) 53 (55%) 137 (69%) 0.03
Patients who received the Maebashi early mobilization protocol, n (%) 138 (47%) 92 (96%) 46 (23%) < 0.01
First intervention day for patients who received rehabilitation intervention during ICU stay (day), median [IQR] 1.8 [1.0–3.0] 1.0 [0.8–1.8] 2.9 [1.7–4.0] < 0.01
First mobilization day for patients who achieved mobilization during ICU stay (day), median [IQR] 2.8 [1.7–5.1] 1.9 [1.3–2.4] 6.0 [4.5–9.0] < 0.01
  1. Patients who achieved mobilization within the first 3 days of the ICU admission were included in the EM group, while patients who did not achieve mobilization during their ICU stays or achieved mobilization after the first 3 days were included in the non-EM group. Of the patients in the non-EM group, 128 (64%) received rehabilitation therapy during their stay in the ICU, and 61 (31%) achieved mobilization during their stay in the ICU.
  2. APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, BMI Body Mass Index, ED emergency department, EM early mobilization, ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment