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Table 5 Appropriate timing for the introduction of palliative care and conducting goals-of-care discussions (physician’s perspective)

From: Current status of palliative care delivery and self-reported practice in ICUs in Japan: a nationwide cross-sectional survey of physician directors

  n = 413
  n % (95% CI)
When do you think it is appropriate timing to introduce palliative care? (Multiple answers allowed)
 When it is futile to continue intensive care 279 68 (63–72)
 At the request of the patient or family 228 55 (50–60)
 When the patient’s distress is apparent 217 53 (48–57)
 When death is expected in ICU 213 52 (47–56)
 When distress is expected to persist after discharge from the hospital 142 34 (30–39)
 Within 24 h of ICU admission 60 15 (11–18)
 When the ICU stay is more than 7 days 54 13 (10–17)
 Others 12 3 (2–5)
When do you think it would be appropriate to conduct goals-of-care discussion? (Multiple answers allowed)
 When it is futile to continue intensive care 293 71 (66–75)
 When death is expected in ICU 268 65 (60–69)
 At the request of the patient or family 241 58 (54–63)
 When the patient’s distress is apparent 168 41 (36–45)
 Within 24 h of ICU admission 166 40 (36–45)
 When distress is expected to persist after discharge from the hospital 99 24 (20–28)
 Within 72 h of ICU admission 85 21 (17–25)
 Others 9 2 (1–4)
  1. Percentages do not add up to 100% due to duplicate responses
  2. CI confidence interval
  3. ICU intensive care unit