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Table 2 Contraindication to Non-invasive Ventilation (NIV)

From: Noninvasive respiratory support for COVID-19 patients: when, for whom, and how?

Contraindications to NIV
1) Cardiac and respiratory arrest
2) Encephalopathy or altered mentation [37]
3) Severe hypoxaemia on admission defined as PaO2/FiO2 < 150 [50]
4) Pneumothorax, pleural effusion, or pulmonary embolism [49]
5) Active upper gastrointestinal bleed, emesis, or aspiration risk [37]
6) Recent facial trauma or facial surgery [37]
7) Hemodynamic instability as defined by vasopressor use [37, 51]
8) Multiorgan dysfunction or failure [51]
9) SOFA score > 5 is predictive of NIV failure [51, 52]
10) Poorly controlled respiratory secretions [37, 39, 53]
11) CXR/CT showing evidence of bilateral, multilobar involvement [39, 51,52,53]