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Table 1 Patient clinical characteristics and MET activation

From: Automated alert and activation of medical emergency team using early warning score

Characteristics Pre-implementation (n = 639) Post-implementation (n = 957) P-value
Age, years 62 (52–72) 62 (51–71) 0.316
Male 374 (58.5) 570 (59.8) 0.627
Medical department 503 (78.7) 738 (77.1) 0.451
Primary diagnosis for hospital admission
 Gastrointestinal diseases 49 (7.7) 70 (7.3) 0.792
 Cardiovascular diseases 14 (2.2) 15 (1.6) 0.361
 Pulmonary diseases 47 (7.4) 82 (8.6) 0.384
 Kidney diseases 8 (1.3) 10 (1.0) 0.701
 Hemato-oncologic diseases 311 (48.7) 467 (48.8) 0.960
 Infectious diseases 35 (5.5) 49 (5.1) 0.754
 Other medical diseases 39 (6.1) 45 (4.7) 0.219
 General surgery 50 (7.8) 110 (11.5) 0.017
 Neurosurgery 14 (2.2) 25 (2.6) 0.593
 Thoracic surgery 4 (0.6) 13 (1.4) 0.163
 Other surgical disease 68 (10.6) 71 (7.4) 0.025
Activation day and time
 Weekday 432 (67.6) 709 (74.1) 0.005
 Daytime hours (08:00–17:59) 288 (45.1) 404 (42.2) 0.259
Reason for MET call
 Respiratory system 360 (56.3) 395 (41.3) < 0.001
 Circulatory system 467 (73.1) 683 (71.4) 0.455
 Neurologic system 104 (16.3) 103 (10.8) 0.001
 Concern about overall deterioration 22 (3.4) 99 (10.3) < 0.001
MEWS scores 8 (7–8) 7 (7–8) 0.001
Vital signs at the initiation of activation
 Heart rates, beats/min 132 (119–145) 133 (121–144) 0.510
 Mean blood pressure, mmHg 72 (58–97) 73 (61–94) 0.598
 Respiratory rates, breaths/min 28 (22–33) 26 (22–32) 0.021
 Body temperature, °C 37.6 (36.5–38.7) 38.1 (36.6–38.8) 0.007
Time from derangement to MET activation, min 60 (17–202) 34 (4–129) < 0.001
Interventions by MET
 Oxygen administration or increase 104 (16.4) 120 (12.7) 0.036
 HFNC/NIV 14 (2.21) 49 (7.35) < 0.001
 Airway management 112 (17.7) 81 (8.5) < 0.001
 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation 25 (3.9) 20 (2.1) 0.032
 Cardioversion 9 (1.4) 14 (1.5) 0.926
 Bolus fluid administration 224 (35.3) 200 (21.1) < 0.001
 Medication therapy 243 (38.3) 397 (41.9) 0.159
 Advice or consultation only 85 (13.4) 357 (37.5) < 0.001
 Treatment limitation 72 (11.3) 107 (11.2) 0.957
Duration of MET intervention, min 65 (39–116) 62 (36–132) 0.953
  1. Values are given as the median (interquartile range) or n (%)
  2. HFNC high-flow nasal cannula, MET medical emergency team, MEWS Modified Early Warning Score, NIV non-invasive ventilation