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Table 4 Factors associated with non-cardiovascular death among septic patients in univariate and multivariate analyses

From: Paradox of trimethylamine-N-oxide, the impact of malnutrition on microbiota-derived metabolites and septic patients

  Univariate Multivariate*
  Crude HR (95% CI) p Adjusted HR (95% CI) p
Plasma TMAO     
 High (≥ 2.5 μmol/L) Ref Ref   
 Median (0.4–2.5 μmol/L) 1.80 (0.83–3.91) 0.137   
 Low (< 0.4 μmol/L) 2.51 (1.21–5.24) 0.014   
Age 1.00 (0.98–1.02) 0.753   
Male gender 1.61 (0.90–2.88) 0.112   
Smoker 1.11 (0.57–2.16) 0.765   
APACHE II scores 1.11 (1.05–1.16)  < 0.001 1.11 (1.04–1.18) 0.001
SOFA scores 1.22 (1.12–1.32)  < 0.001 1.18 (1.06–1.31) 0.002
Mean arterial pressure 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 0.374   
Septic shock 1.74 (0.99–3.06) 0.053   
Respiratory tract infection 0.50 (0.26–0.94) 0.031 0.31 (0.16–0.62) 0.001
Urinary tract infection 0.50 (0.12–2.05) 0.333   
Intra-abdominal infection 1.59 (0.83–3.04) 0.164   
Bloodstream infection 0.91 (0.53–1.57) 0.731   
Antibiotic pre-treatment, numbers 1.07 (0.95–1.20) 0.271   
Antibiotic pre-treatment, days 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 0.342   
Hypertension 0.67 (0.38–1.20) 0.180   
Diabetic mellitus 1.06 (0.56–1.98) 0.868   
Heart failure 0.69 (0.21–2.22) 0.532   
COPD 1.19 (0.43–3.32) 0.738   
Cirrhosis 1.23 (0.38–3.95) 0.731   
Prior CAD 1.00 (0.36–2.80) 0.998   
Prior stroke or PAD 0.33 (0.08–1.38) 0.129   
Malignancy 1.82 (1.04–3.20) 0.037 2.08 (1.14–3.79) 0.018
Autoimmune disease 0.39 (0.12–1.25) 0.114   
White blood cells (K) 0.99 (0.96–1.03) 0.743   
Hemoglobin 0.97 (0.84–1.12) 0.667   
eGFR at ICU admission 1.00 (1.00–1.01) 0.457   
Total bilirubin 1.06 (1.01–1.11) 0.014   
Glucose 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.945   
Lactate 1.02 (1.01–1.03) 0.003 1.02 (1.01–1.03) 0.002
C-reactive protein 0.98 (0.95–1.01) 0.231   
Enteral intake of calories 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.064   
Enteral intake of protein 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.087   
Total calories (% of target) 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 0.088   
Total protein (% of target) 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 0.099   
Body mass index 0.97 (0.92–1.03) 0.359   
Albumin 0.78 (0.47–1.31) 0.354   
Prealbumin 0.92 (0.87–0.97) 0.002   
Nutrition risk index 0.98 (0.96–1.01) 0.156   
NRS 2002 scores 1.26 (0.99–1.60) 0.057 1.43 (1.10–1.86) 0.008
  1. HR hazard ratio; CI confidence interval; TMAO trimethylamine-N-oxide; Ref reference; APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CAD coronary artery disease; PAD peripheral arterial disease; eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate; NRS-2002 Nutritional Risk Screening 2002
  2. *Adjusted for variables with p < 0.1 in the univariate analysis