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Table 3 Clinical outcomes of septic patients according to plasma TMAO concentration

From: Paradox of trimethylamine-N-oxide, the impact of malnutrition on microbiota-derived metabolites and septic patients

  Low TMAO
(< 0.4 μmol/L)
N = 32
Median TMAO
(0.4–2.5 μmol/L)
N = 32
High TMAO
(≥ 2.5 μmol/L)
N = 31
p
value
Primary outcomes     
 In-hospital, all-cause death 25 (78.1) 20 (62.5) 15 (48.4) 0.050
  Cardiovascular death* 0 (0) 1 (3.1) 5 (16.1) 0.021
  Non-cardiovascular death 25 (78.1) 19 (59.4) 10 (32.3) 0.001
Secondary outcomes     
 Acute kidney injury (AKI) 9 (28.1) 13 (40.6) 18 (58.1) 0.054
 AKI required dialysis 3 (9.4) 7 (21.9) 9 (29.0) 0.142
 Weaning success 5 (15.6) 9 (28.1) 14 (45.2) 0.036
 Length of ventilator usage, days 21.5 (12.3–33.0) 15.5 (8.3–28.3) 12.0 (6.0–23.0) 0.039
 Length of ICU stay, days 13.0 (8.3–20.0) 10.5 (6.3–19.5) 10.0 (7.0–16.0) 0.332
 Length of hospitalization, days 21.5 (13.0–34.8) 23.5 (10.5–50.0) 26.0 (19.0–37.0) 0.906
  1. TMAO trimethylamine-N-oxide; ICU intensive care unit
  2. *Patients died of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, heart failure, stroke, or CV procedures
  3. Patients died of other causes, primarily sepsis and terminal cancer