Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics and nutritional status of septic patients according to plasma TMAO concentration

From: Paradox of trimethylamine-N-oxide, the impact of malnutrition on microbiota-derived metabolites and septic patients

  Low TMAO
(< 0.4 μmol/L)
N = 32
Median TMAO
(0.4–2.5 μmol/L)
N = 32
High TMAO
(≥ 2.5 μmol/L)
N = 31
p
value
Age (years) 68.5 (61.3–79.5) 67.5 (56.3–74.8) 70.0 (57.0–78.0) 0.371
Male gender 17 (53.1) 18 (56.3) 23 (74.2) 0.182
Smoking 3 (9.4) 6 (18.2) 10 (32.3) 0.074
Disease severity     
 APACHE II scores 29 (28.0–31.0) 28.0 (23.3–31.0) 29.0 (24.0–32.0) 0.742
 SOFA scores 12.0 (10.0–12.8) 11.0 (9.0–13.8) 11.0 (9.0–12.0) 0.662
 Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 56.7 (50.3–63.5) 58.3 (50.2–65.0) 53.0 (46.3–61.3) 0.163
 Septic shock 14 (43.8) 12 (37.5) 8 (25.8) 0.322
Causes & treatment of sepsis     
 Respiratory tract infection 26 (81.3) 24 (75.0) 26 (83.9) 0.663
 Urinary tract infection 0 (0.0) 3 (9.4) 3 (9.7) 0.196
 Intra-abdominal infection 8 (25.0) 7 (21.9) 3 (9.7) 0.262
 Bloodstream infection 17 (53.1) 17 (53.1) 9 (29.0) 0.087
 Abx pre-treatment, numbers 5.5 (3.0–7.0) 3.0 (2.3–4.8) 2.0 (1.0–3.0)  < 0.001
 Abx pre-treatment, days 12.5 (3.3–27.8) 3.0 (2.0–10.0) 1.0 (1.0–4.0)  < 0.001
Co-morbidities     
 Hypertension 9 (28.1) 13 (40.6) 15 (48.4) 0.250
 Diabetic mellitus 7 (21.9) 8 (25.0) 8 (25.8) 0.928
 Heart failure 4 (12.5) 2 (6.3) 2 (6.5) 0.594
 COPD 3 (9.4) 3 (9.4) 1 (3.2) 0.561
 Cirrhosis 2 (6.3) 3 (9.4) 0 (0.0) 0.238
 Prior CAD 1 (3.1) 2 (6.3) 8 (25.8) 0.010
 Prior stroke or PAD 1 (3.1) 1 (3.1) 5 (16.1) 0.075
 Malignancy 20 (62.5) 15 (46.9) 14 (45.2) 0.313
 Autoimmune disease 2 (6.3) 6 (18.6) 4 (12.9) 0.322
Laboratory data     
 White blood cells (K) 9.0 (3.3–15.0) 9.6 (1.1–16.2) 8.6 (2.1–12.4) 0.906
 Hemoglobin (mg/dL) 8.6 (7.7–9.3) 8.8 (7.7–10.0) 8.4 (7.6–9.8) 0.722
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 57.4 (26.4–90.3) 43.0 (21.8–78.9) 21.5 (7.4–35.2) 0.001
 Total bilirubin (mg/dL) 1.8 (0.7–3.1) 1.7 (0.8–4.5) 0.8 (0.4–1.7) 0.008
 Glucose (mg/dL) 132.0 (97.8–205.8) 133.0 (101.3–204.0) 147.0 (107.0–228.0) 0.697
 Lactate (mg/dL) 18.3 (8.3–25.4) 16.7 (9.9–24.1) 10.8 (7.2–19.8) 0.268
 C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 7.5 (3.0–13.4) 12.2 (6.9–19.3) 13.5 (5.9–25.0) 0.030
 TMAO (μmol/L) 0.1 (0.1–0.2) 1.1 (0.7–1.9) 4.7 (3.5–11.0)  < 0.001
Nutritional status     
 Enteral intake of calories (kcal/day) 89.5 (0.0–623.5) 502.0 (0.0–768.9) 1355.5 (1055.0–1573.0)  < 0.001
 Enteral intake of protein (g/day) 3.5 (0.0–25.9) 20.0 (0.0–38.4) 61.0 (35.0–71.0)  < 0.001
 Total calories (% of target) 30.9 (12.6–51.8) 43.5 (27.9–68.0) 81.7 (67.1–110.3)  < 0.001
 Total protein (% of target) 14.6 (0.0–53.1) 32.0 (0.0–59.0) 66.9 (55.4–86.2)  < 0.001
 Body mass index 19.3 (17.7–20.3) 21.3 (18.7–25.2) 23.9 (22.4–28.6)  < 0.001
 Albumin (mg/dL) 2.8 (2.6–3.2) 2.9 (2.5–3.2) 3.3 (2.9–3.8) 0.001
 Prealbumin (mg/dL) 6.9 (4.4–10.9) 7.7 (5.4–13.1) 12.0 (8.3–17.0) 0.001
 Nutrition risk index 80.1 (73.8–85.5) 84.5 (78.5–92.4) 98.3 (87.3–109.8)  < 0.001
 NRS 2002 scores 5.0 (5.0–6.0) 4.0 (4.0–5.8) 4.0 (3.0–4.0)  < 0.001
  1. TMAO trimethylamine-N-oxide; APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; Abx antibiotic; COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CAD coronary artery disease; PAD peripheral arterial disease; eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate; NRS-2002 Nutritional Risk Screening 2002