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Table 1 Characteristics of the study cohort according to outcomes

From: Cerebral autoregulation in anoxic brain injury patients treated with targeted temperature management

  All (n = 50) Survivors (n = 19) Non-Survivors (n = 31) p value FO (n = 14) UO (n = 36) p value
Male gender, n (%) 39 (78) 15 (79) 24 (77) 1.00 11 (79) 28 (79) 1.00
Age, years 65 [55–73] 60 [51–71] 67 [55–74] 0.33 58 [51–73] 66 [57–73] 0.40
APACHE II 26 [24–31] 26 [21–28] 27 [24–33] 0.07 26 [21–28] 27 [24–32] 0.17
ICU LOS, days 9 [4–19] 22 [11–37] 4 [3–10] < 0.01 18 [9–31] 6 [3–13] < 0.01
Comorbidities
 Arterial hypertension, n (%) 23 (46) 7 (37) 16 (52) 0.39 5 (36) 18 (50) 0.53
 Vascular disease, n (%) 10 (20) 3 (16) 7 (23) 0.72 3 (21) 7 (19) 1.00
 Chronic heart failure, n (%) 3 (6) 0 (0) 3 (10) 0.28 0 (0) 3 (8) 0.55
 Chronic kidney disease, n (%) 8 (16) 2 (11) 6 (19) 0.69 1 (7) 7 (19) 0.41
 COPD, n (%) 6 (12) 2 (11) 4 (13) 1.00 0 (0) 6 (17) 0.17
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 10 (20) 3 (30) 7 (70) 0.72 1 (7) 9 (25) 0.25
 Previous Seizure, n (%) 3 (6) 0 (0) 3 (10) 0.28 0 (0) 3 (8) 0.55
 Minor stroke, n (%) 7 (14) 2 (11) 5 (16) 0.70 1 (7) 6 (17) 0.66
Cardiac arrest characteristics
 Cause of CA, n (%)
  Cardiac 23 (48) 13 (68) 10 (32) 0.02 10 (71) 13 (36) 0.03
  Anoxic 15 (32) 2 (11) 13 (42) 0.03 1 (7) 14 (39) 0.04
  Obstructive 2 (6) 1 (5) 1 (3) 1.00 1 (7) 1 (3) 0.49
  Indeterminate 9 (18) 4 (22) 7 (10) 0.30 2 (14) 8 (26) 0.30
 Shockable rhythm, n (%) 24 (48) 14 (58) 10 (42)  < 0.01 10 (71) 14 (39) 0.06
 Time to ROSC, min 20 [10–35] 16 [10–35] 23 [16–35] 0.09 13 [10–33] 22 [16–36] 0.03
Clinical variables and autoregulation assessment
 NSE (ng/mL) 39 [24–78] (n = 32) 29 [20–40] (n = 14) 74 [34–108] (n = 18)  < 0.01 25 [20–37] (n = 10) 56 [32–86] (n = 22) 0.01
 Highly malignant EEG 18 (36) 0 (0) 18 (58)  < 0.01 0 (0) 18 (50)  < 0.01
 Mxa during HT 0.33 [0.11–0.58] 0.37 [0.03–0.51] 0.31 [0.18–0.65] 0.25 0.21 [0.00–0.46] 0.38 [0.18–0.65] 0.08
 Mxa during NT 0.58 [0.30–0.83] 0.31 [0.00–0.62] 0.67 [0.46–0.84] < 0.01 0.31 [− 0.01–0.69] 0.63 [0.43–0.83] 0.03
 Altered CAR at HT, n (%) 27 (54) 11 (42) 17 (52) 0.77 7 (50) 20 (56) 0.76
 Altered CAR at NT, n (%) 38 (76) 10 (53) 28 (90) < 0.01 7 (50) 31 (86) 0.02
  1. APACHE II acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II, CA cardiac arrest, CAR cerebral autoregulation, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, FO favorable outcome, HT hypothermia, LOS length of stay, Mxa mean flow index, NS non survivors, NT normothermia, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation; S survivors, UO unfavorable outcome