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Table 1 Characteristics of enrolled critically ill surgical patients categorised by overall mortality

From: The association between culture positivity and long-term mortality in critically ill surgical patients

  All Non-survivors Survivors p value
  (N = 6748) (N = 2196) (N = 4552)  
Basic characteristics
 Age, years 60.9 ± 15.9 66.4 ± 15.3 58.3 ± 15.5  < 0.01
 Sex (male) 4334 (64.2%) 1519 (69.2%) 2815 (61.8%)  < 0.01
 Body mass index 24.6 ± 4.5 23.8 ± 4.5 25.1 ± 4.5  < 0.01
 Charlson comorbidity index 1.6 ± 1.4 2.3 ± 1.4 1.3 ± 1.2  < 0.01
 Follow-up duration, years 1.8 ± 1.4 0.7 ± 0.9 2.3 ± 1.3  < 0.01
Comorbidities
 Diabetes mellitus 1580 (23.4%) 603 (27.5%) 977 (21.5%)  < 0.01
 Congestive heart failure 513 (7.6%) 202 (9.2%) 311(6.8%)  < 0.01
 Chronic pulmonary disease 182 (2.7%) 96 (4.4%) 86 (1.9%)  < 0.01
 Moderate or severe liver disease 184 (2.7%) 98 (4.46%) 86 (1.9%)  < 0.01
 End-stage renal disease 63 (1.0%) 32 (1.5%) 31 (0.7%)  < 0.01
 Malignancy 1274 (18.9%) 718 (32.7%) 556 (12.2%)  < 0.01
 Presence of metastatic tumour 237 (3.5%) 181 (8.2%) 56 (1.2%)  < 0.01
Divisions  < 0.01
 Neurosurgery 3328 (49.3%) 839 (38.2%) 2489 (54.7%)  
 Cardiovascular surgery 1376 (20.4%) 262 (11.9%) 1114 (24.5%)  
 Major abdomen surgery 840 (12.4%) 465 (21.2%) 375 (8.2%)  
 Chest surgery 472 (7.0%) 235 (10.7%) 237 (5.2%)  
 Urological surgery 165 (2.4%) 107 (4.9%) 58 (1.3%)  
 Otorhinolaryngology 200 (3.0%) 130 (5.9%) 70 (1.5%)  
 Plastic surgery 95 (1.4%) 45 (2.1%) 50 (1.1%)  
 Other divisions 272 (4.0%) 113 (5.2%) 159 (3.5%)  
Severity and managements
 APACHE II score 20.4 ± 6.4 23.2 ± 6.6 19.0 ± 5.9  < 0.01
 Presence of shock 1975 (29.3%) 892 (40.6%) 1083 (23.8%)  < 0.01
 Receiving surgery during admission 4818 (71.4%) 1364 (62.1%) 3454 (75.9%)  < 0.01
 Emergent surgery 994 (14.7%) 332 (15.1%) 662 (14.5%) 0.53
 Receiving mechanical ventilation 2256 (33.4%) 1074 (48.9%) 1182 (26.0%)  < 0.01
 Renal replacement therapy 340 (5.0%) 253 (11.5%) 87 (1.9%)  < 0.01
 Fluid balance, days 1–3, mL 1142.0 ± 2672.7 1601.4 ± 3312.8 920.3 ± 2268.5  < 0.01
Microbiologic data
 Presence of positive cultures 2122 (31.4%) 1110 (50.6%) 1012 (22.2%)  < 0.01
Culture sites
 Blood 417 (6.2%) 283 (12.9%) 134 (2.9%)  < 0.01
 Respiratory tract 1702 (25.2%) 900 (41.0%) 802 (17.6%)  < 0.01
 Urinary tract 554 (8.2%) 341 (15.5%) 213 (4.7%)  < 0.01
 Skin and soft tissue site 194 (2.9%) 123 (5.6%) 71 (1.6%)  < 0.01
 Abdomen 139 (2.1%) 95 (4.3%) 44 (1.0%)  < 0.01
 Other sites 349 (5.2%) 210 (9.6%) 139 (3.1%)  < 0.01
Outcomes
 ICU-stay, days 8.7 ± 11.4 12.2 ± 15.4 7.1 ± 8.4  < 0.01
 Hospital-stay, days 22.4 ± 24.3 29.5 ± 33.2 19.0 ± 17.6  < 0.01
 Ventilator-day 7.9 ± 12.2 12.3 ± 15.4 5.5 ± 9.1  < 0.01
Mortality at distinct timepoints  < 0.01
 In-hospital mortality 705 (10.4%) 705 (10.4%) NA NA
 90-day mortality 1088 (16.1%) 1088 (16.1%) NA NA
 1-year mortality 1648 (24.4%) 1648 (24.4%) NA NA