Skip to main content

Table 3 Thresholds and limits of dynamic indicators

From: The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2020 (J-SSCG 2020)

Method Threshold Main limits
PPV (pulse pressure variation)
SVV (stroke volume variation)
12% Difficult to use in the following cases: patients with spontaneous breathing, patients with arrhythmia, patients with low tidal ventilation, and patients with low lung compliance
IVC diameter fluctuations 12% Difficult to use in the following cases: patients with spontaneous breathing, patients with arrhythmia, and patients with low lung compliance
SVC diameter fluctuations 12–40% Requires transesophageal echocardiography. Difficult to use in the following cases: patients with spontaneous breathing, patients with low tidal ventilation, and patients with low lung compliance
PLR (passive leg raising) 10% Cardiac output is to be directly measured
Difficult to use in the following cases: patients with lower limb defects, pregnant women, patients receiving vasoactive drugs, and patients with increased intra-abdominal pressure
EEO (end-expiratory occlusion test) 5% Difficult to use in the following cases:
non-intubated patients and patients who cannot hold their breath for more than 15 s
Low-dose fluid challenge (100 mL) 6–10% Cardiac output needs to be measured directly and accurately
Fluid challenge (500 mL) 15% Risk of fluid overload if repeated.
Cardiac output needs to be measured directly