Skip to main content

Table 2 Association between physical restraint and sedative and antipsychotic medications use

From: Association between physical restraint requirement and unfavorable neurologic outcomes in subarachnoid hemorrhage

Variables Total
(n = 101)
Physical restraint during the first 24 to 72 h after admission P value
No
physical restraint
(n = 46)
Intermittent
physical restraint
(n = 26)
Continuous
physical restraint
(n = 29)
Sedatives and analgesia (%)
 Midazolam 12 (11.9) 5 (10.9) 2 (7.7) 5 (17.2) 0.529
 Propofol 30 (29.7) 4 (8.7) 10 (38.5) 16 (55.2) < 0.001
 Dexmedetomidine 33 (32.7) 5 (10.9) 10 (38.5) 18 (62.1) < 0.001
 Fentanyl 25 (24.8) 9 (19.6) 5 (19.2) 11 (37.9) 0.150
Evaluation of RASS
 Maximum RASS score 0 (0–1.0) 0 (0–0) 0 (− 0.3–1.0) 1 (− 1.0–1.5) 0.005
 Minimum RASS score − 2.0 (− 4.0 to − 1.0) − 1.0 (− 1.0 to − 1.0) − 2.5 (− 4.0 to − 1.0) − 4 (− 4.0 to − 4.0) < 0.001
 RASS score ≥ 1 (%) 36 (35.6) 5 (10.9) 12 (46.2) 19 (65.5) < 0.001
 Duration of RASS score ≥ 1 (h) 0 (0–3.0) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–7.3) 2.0 (0–10.5) < 0.001
 RASS score ≤ − 3 (%) 49 (48.5) 9 (19.6) 13 (50.0) 27 (93.1) < 0.001
 Duration of RASS score ≤ − 3 (h) 0 (0–40.5) 0 (0–0) 0.5 (0–31.0) 36.0 (14.0–45.0) < 0.001
Antipsychotic medications (%) 7 (6.9) 1 (2.2) 2 (7.7) 4 (13.8) 0.153
Number of devicesa 7.0 (6.0–7.0) 7.0 (6.0–7.0) 7.0 (6.8–7.0) 7.0 (6.5–8.0) 0.436
  1. RASS Richmond Agitation–Sedation scale
  2. aDevices: endotracheal tube, central venous catheter, arterial line, peripheral venous catheter, nasogastric tube, urinary catheter, external ventricular drain, lumbar spinal drain, and intracranial pressure sensor