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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of 259 patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory failure

From: Predictors of failure with high-flow nasal oxygen therapy in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure: a multicenter observational study

  ALL (n=259) Intubation P value1
NO (n=119) YES (n=140)
Patients demographics and comorbidities
 Age, years 62 (55-70) 62 (53-69) 63 (55-70) 0.39
 Gender, male 185 (71%) 90 (76%) 95 (68%) 0.16
 BMI, kg/m2 28 (25-32) 27 (25-31) 28 (25-32) 0.11
 Number of comorbidities 1 (0-2) 1 (0-2) 1 (0-1) 0.73
 Hypertension 109 (42%) 47 (420%) 62 (44%) 0.45
 Ischemic heart disease 15 (6%) 8 (7%) 7 (5%) 0.60
 Diabetes 45 (17%) 20 (16%) 25 (18%) 0.87
 Chronic respiratory disease 14 (5%) 6 (5%) 8 (6%) 1
 Chronic kidney disease 22 (8%) 10 (8%) 12 (9%) 1
 Malignancy 12 (4%) 9 (8%) 3 (2%) 0.07
 Days from hospital to ICU admission. 2 (1-4) 3 (1-4) 2 (0-4) <0.01
Scores
 SOFA 4 (3-7) 4 (3-5) 6 (4-8) <0.01
 Non-respiratory SOFA 1 (0-3) 0 (0-1) 3 (0-4) <0.01
 APACHE II 11 (8-16) 9 (6-13) 13 (10-18) <0.01
 Glasgow Coma Scale 15 (15-15) 15 (15-15) 15 (15-15) 0.03
Vital signs
 Respiratory rate, rpm 26 (22-30) 24 (20-28) 29 (25-34) <0.01
 Heart rate 80 (72-93) 78 (70-90) 84 (75-95) 0.01
 SBP, mmHg 126 (22) 126 (18) 125 (23) 0.33
 SpO2, % 90 (87-93) 91 (89-94) 89 (85-92) <0.01
 PaO2/FiO2 109 (83-151) 124 (95-166) 96 (78-144) <0.01
 ROX index 4.4 (3.3-6.1) 5.4 (5.1-7.3) 3.5 (3.2-5.1) <0.01
 pH 7.45 (7.40-7.47) 7.46 (7.44-7.49) 7.40 (7.39-7.40) <0.01
 PaCO2, mmHg 36 (31-41) 34 (31-38) 36 (30-47) 0.01
Laboratory findings
 Creatinine, mg/dL 0.8 (0.7-1.1) 0.8 (0.7-1) 0.9 (0.7-1.2) 0.32
 Leucocyte count, 109/μL 7.5 (5.6-11.5) 7.1 (5.8-10.8) 7.7 (5.6-12.3) 0.16
 Platelet count, 1012/ μL 235 (175-319) 248 (197-342) 234 (164-300) 0.03
 D-dimer, U/L 985 (600-2200) 915 (600-1970) 1100 (680-2620) 0.12
  1. Continuous covariates are shown as mean (SD) or median (IQR). Categorial variables are presented as n (%)
  2. 1Means are compared with the Student’s T test, medians with Mann-Whitney U test and proportions with either the Chi2 or Fisher exact test. ROX index was calculated as [(SpO2/inspired oxygen fraction)/respiratory rate (RR)]
  3. BMI body mass index; ICU intensive care unit; SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II; SBP systolic blood pressure; SpO2 peripheral oxyhemoglobin saturation; PaO2/FiO2 partial pressure of arterial oxygen to inspiratory oxygen fraction ratio; PaCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide