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Table 2 Summary of study characteristics

From: The incidence of pulmonary thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit: a meta-analysis and meta-regression of observational studies

Study Study location Study period Indication for ICU admission N (ICU) Prophylactic anticoagulation agent Patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulation on ICU admission (%) Patients receiving prophylactic anticoagulation on ICU admission (%) Patients receiving at least anticoagulation on ICU admission (%) Imaging Modality for PTE diagnosis Indication for PTE imaging Incidence of PTE (%) Follow-up (days)
Beun et al. [12] Netherlands 16 March–9 April NR 75 NR NR NR NR CT scan NR 26.7 NR
Desborough et al. [13] UK 1 March–31 March NR 66 Dalteparin 16.7 83.3 100 CT scan NR 7.6 28
Fraissé et al. [14] France 6 March–22 April Respiratory failure 92 NR 53.3 46.7 100 CT scan Clinical suspicion 20.7 NR
Grandmaison et al. [15] Switzerland NR NR 29 Enoxaparin, UFH 3.4 89.7 93.1 CT scan Clinical suspicion 6.9 NR
Helms et al. [16] France 3 March–31 March Acute respiratory distress syndrome based on Berlin definition 150 LMWH, UFH 30 70 100 CT scan Worsening PaO2/FiO2 ratio, haemodynamic instability, dilated right ventricle, rapid increase in D-dimer 16.7 ≥ 7
Hippensteel et al. [17] USA 18 March–14 April NR 91 NR NR NR NR CT scan NR 5.5 NR
Klok et al. [18] Netherlands 7 March–5 April NR 184 Nadroparin 9.2 90.8 100 CT scan NR 13.6 7 (1–13)
Llitjos et al. [19] France 19 March–11 April Respiratory failure 26 LMWH, UFH 69.2 30.8 100 CT scan Persistent respiratory failure 23.1 NR
Lodigiani et al. [20] Italy 13 February–10 April NR 61 LMWH 3.3 96.7 100 CT scan Worsening PaO2/FiO2 ratio, rapid increase in D-dimer 3.3 NR
Maatman et al. [21] USA 12 March–31 March SpO2 ≤ 94%, RR ≥ 30, PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 300 mmHg, or requiring mechanical ventilation 109 Enoxaparin, UFH 6.4 93.6 100 CT scan NR 4.6 NR
Middeldorp et al. [22] Netherlands 2 March–12 April NR 75 Nadroparin 9.3 90.7 100 CT scan Worsening hypoxaemia 14.7 15 (9–20)
Poissy et al. [23] France 27 February–31 March NR 107 LMWH, UFH NR NR NR CT scan Acute deterioration of haemodynamic and respiratory status 20.6 NR
Tavazzi et al. [24] Italy NR NR 54 LMWH 0 100 100 CT scan NR 3.7 NR
Thomas et al. [25] UK 15 March–14 April NR 63 Dalteparin 0 100 100 CT scan Unexplained hypotension or hypoxia disproportionate to pneumonia 7.9 8 (1–28)
  1. ICU intensive care unit, BMI body-mass index, PTE pulmonary thromboembolism, CT computed tomographic, NR not reported, LMWH low-molecular-weight heparin, UFH unfractionated heparin, RR respiratory rate