Skip to main content


Table 1 Classification schemes for bacterial β-lactamases by Bush-Jacoby [17, 18]

From: Molecular diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and carbapenemases, and antimicrobial resistance

Bush-Jacoby*AmblerEnzymatic centerEnzymesDistinctive substrateCharacteristic(s)
11CSerAmpC, CMY-1, ACT-1, FOX-1, MIR-1CephalosporinsResistance to CA and TZB
1eGC1, CMY-10, CMY-19, CMY-37Ceftazidime, oxyimino-β-lactams ESACResistance to CA and TZB reduced sensitivity to carbapenems
22aAPC1PenicillinsInhibited by CA, TZB
2bTEM-1, TEM-2, SHV-1Penicillins, early cephalosporinsInhibited by CA, TZB
2beTEM-3, SHV-2, CTX-M-15, PER-1, VEB-1ESCP, monobactamsInhibited by CA, TZB
2brTEM-30, SHV-10PenicillinsResistance to CA, SB and TZB
2berTEM-50ESCP, monobactamsResistance to CA, SB and TZB
2cPSE-1, CARB-3CarbenicillinInhibited by CA, TZB
2ceRTG-4Carbenicillin, cefepimeInhibited by CA, TZB
2dDOXA-1, OXA-10CloxacillinVariable to CA, TZB
2deOXA-11, OXA-15ESCP, oxyimino-β-lactams
2dfOXA-23, OXA-48Cloxacillin, oxacillin, carbapenems
2eACepAESCPInhibited by CA but not aztreonam
2fKPC-2, IMI-1, SME-1Carbapenems, oxyimino-β-lactams, cephamycinsVariable to CA, TZB
33aB1Zn2+IMP-1, VIM-1,CcrA, IND-1CarbapenemsResistance to CA, SB and TZB
Inhibited by monobactams
3bB3L1, CAU-1, GOB-1, FEZ-1
3cB2CphA, Sfh-1Resistance to CA, SB and TZB
  1. CA clavulanic acid, SB sulbactam, TZB tazobactam, ESCP Extended-spectrum cephalosporins
  2. *Updated in 2010 [17]