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Table 1 Demographic, infection, and admission characteristics comparing those had ARDS and those did not

From: Risk modifiers of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with non-pulmonary sepsis: a retrospective analysis of the FORECAST study

Characteristics ARDS (n = 85)No ARDS (n = 509)P value
Age at admission—year 70 (62–80)72 (63–82)0.46
Male gender 51 (60)289 (56.8)0.66
Admission sourceHospital wards and other hospitals28 (32.9)226 (44.5)0.12
Emergency department52 (61.2)255 (50.2)
Intensive care unit5 (5.9)27 (5.3)
Body mass index—kg/m2 23.4 ± 4.8223.4 ± 5.450.07
Coexisting conditionsMyocardial infarction5 (5.9)27 (5.3)0.80
Congestive heart failure9 (10.6)53 (10.4)1.00
Peripheral vascular disease2 (2.4)10 (2)0.69
Cerebrovascular disease7 (8.2)65 (12.8)0.31
Dementia4 (4.7)44 (8.6)0.28
COPD4 (4.7)25 (4.9)1.00
Connective tissue disease5 (5.9)32 (6.3)1.00
Peptic ulcer disease2 (2.4)17 (3.3)1.00
Diabetes mellitus21 (24.7)121 (23.8)0.96
Chronic kidney disease5 (5.9)39 (7.7)0.66
Hemiplegia2 (2.4)20 (3.9)0.76
Malignancy (solid)6 (7.1)68 (13.4)0.15
Malignancy (blood)1 (1.2)9 (1.8)1.00
Metastatic tumor2 (2.4)15 (2.9)1.00
Mild liver disease3 (3.5)25 (4.9)0.78
Moderate to severe liver disease0 (0)15 (2.9)0.15
AIDS0 (0)1 (0.2)1.00
CCI w/o diabetes mellitus 0 (0–1)1 (0–2)0.004
SmokingNever55 (66.3)275 (59.0)0.05
Former24 (28.9)123 (26.4)
Current4 (4.8)68 (14.6)
Regular medicationGlucocorticoids9 (10.6)69 (13.6)0.56
Immunosuppressants3 (3.5)21 (4.1)1.00
Anticoagulant13 (15.3)42 (8.3)0.04
Antiplatelet14 (16.5)87 (17.1)1.00
Statin5 (5.9)53 (10.4)0.24
Beta blocker5 (5.9)36 (7.1)0.82
Anticancer drug2 (2.4)15 (2.9)1.00
Antibiotics16 (18.8)70 (13.8)0.29
Site of infectionAbdomen32 (37.6)199 (39.1)0.25
Urinary tract15 (17.6)132 (25.9)
Soft tissue17 (20.0)74 (14.5)
Other than abdomen, urinary tract, or soft tissue21 (24.7)104 (20.4)
Septic shock 68 (80)336 (66)0.02
Respiratory rate—/min 25 (22–32)24 (21–30)0.34
FiO2 0.4 (0.3–0.5)0.3 (0.25–0.4)< 0.001
PaO2—mmHg 83 (75–103)94 (78.6–112)0.05
PaO2/FiO2 ratio 179 (119–240)284 (184–374)< 0.001
Hematocrit—% 33 (28–38)33 (29–39)0.38
Serum albumin—g/dL 2.4 (2.0–2.8)2.6 (2.2–3.2)0.01
Blood pH 7.36 (7.29–7.44)7.41 (7.34–7.47)0.003
Positive blood culture 54 (63.5)303 (59.9)0.53
Pathogens (blood culture)Gram positive coccus23 (27.1)116 (22.8)0.39
Gram negative rod28 (32.9)167 (32.8)0.98
APACHE II score 26 (21–33)21 (16–28)< 0.001
Non-pulmonary SOFA score 9 (7–11)7 (4–9)< 0.001
  1. Reported counts (proportions) for categorical variables and median (interquartile range) for continuous variables
  2. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome defined by Berlin criteria, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, FiO2 fraction of inspiratory oxygen, PaO2 partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood, APACHE II acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment
  3. Definition of categorical variables: other than abdomen, urinary tract, or soft tissue = central nervous system, intravenous catheter, osteoarticular, endocardium, wound, implant device, and others; positive blood culture = culture without clinically confirmed contamination; Gram-positive coccus = Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus; Gram-negative rod = Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Citrobacter, Escherichia, Enterobacter, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, Legionella, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Salmonella, Serratia, Stenotrophomonas, and Vibrio
  4. Missing data (due to missing data of each outcome measures): admission source = 1; body mass index = 9; smoking = 45; respiratory rate = 1; FiO2 = 14; PaO2 = 18; PaO2/FiO2 ratio = 19; serum albumin = 10; blood pH = 14; positive blood culture = 3; APACHE II score = 53; non-pulmonary SOFA score = 46