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Table 2 Echocardiographic parameters in critically ill patients with coronavirus-19 sepsis according to survival at day 28

From: Advanced echocardiographic phenotyping of critically ill patients with coronavirus-19 sepsis: a prospective cohort study

  All patients (n = 67) Survivors (n = 41) Non-survivors (n = 26) p value
Preload
 Maximal IVC diameter (mm) 22 (18–25) 23 (19–26) 21 (16–26) 0.36
 E/A ratio at mitral valve 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 0.8 (0.6–1.1) < 0.01
 E/e′ ratio at mitral valve 7 (6–9) 7 (5–8) 7 (6–10) 0.18
LV contractility
 LVEF (%) 60 (49–67) 61 (52–69) 54 (42–67) 0.30
 AS (%) 14.8 (17.9–10.2) 15.6 (10.9–18.4) 12.1 (9.1–16.7) 0.12
 sm (cm s−1) 11 (9–13) 11 (10–16) 11 (10–16) 0.29
 VAC 1.9 (1.0–3.0) 2.0 (1.5–2.9) 1.3 (0.8–3.4) 0.17
 ME (mmHg mL−1) 3.6 (1.8–5.0) 3.9 (2.5–4.7) 2.7 (1.5–6.1) 0.36
LV afterload
 AE (mmHg mL−1 μg−1 kg min) 1.8 (1.6–2.1) 1.7 (1.6–2.0) 1.8 (1.6–2.2) 0.30
 SVR (mmHg L−1 min) 1096 (908–1245) 1102 (921–1384) 1087 (899–1227) 0.42
 DAP (mmHg) 57 (53–66) 57 (55–66) 56 (52–67) 0.34
RV function
 TAPSE (mm) 21 (18–25) 22 (20–25) 19 (17–24) 0.11
 st (cm/s) 13 (11–17) 13 (11–17) 14 (11–16) 0.98
 PCD     0.31
  0 28 (42%) 15 (37%) 13 (50%)  
  1 8 (12%) 4 (10%) 4 (15%)  
  2 31 (46%) 22 (54%) 9 (35%)  
Global function
 VTI LVOT (cm) 18 (15–21) 18 (15–21) 18 (15–20) 0.63
 Systolic ejection volume (mL) 69 (54–83) 71 (60–85) 68 (53–81) 0.54
 Heart rate (rpm) 87 (73–100) 84 (69–97) 90 (76–105) 0.09
 Cardiac index (L min) 2.9 (2.4–3.5) 3.0 (2.4–3.4) 2.9 (2.4–3.7) 0.83
  1. Survival was assessed at day 28. COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, IVC inferior vena cava, E/A ratio of early to late pulsed-wave Doppler of diastolic transmitral flow velocity, E/e′ ratio of early pulsed-wave Doppler to early tissue Doppler diastolic wave velocity at the lateral mitral valve annulus, LV left ventricle, RV right ventricle, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, AS absolute value of left ventricular global longitudinal strain, VAC ventricular-arterial coupling, ME end-systolic maximal elastance, e′ early tissue Doppler diastolic wave velocity at the lateral mitral valve annulus, AE arterial elastance, SVR systemic vascular resistance, DAP diastolic arterial pressure, TAPSE tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion, sm: peak of systolic mitral annulus velocity (obtained using pulsed tissue Doppler), st: peak of systolic tricuspid annulus velocity (obtained using pulsed tissue Doppler), PCD pulmonary circulatory dysfunction, VTI LVOT velocity-time integral of left ventricular outflow tract