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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and organ failure at time of echocardiography of critically ill patients with coronavirus-19 sepsis, according to survival at day 28

From: Advanced echocardiographic phenotyping of critically ill patients with coronavirus-19 sepsis: a prospective cohort study

  All patients (n = 67) Survivors (n = 41) Non-survivors (n = 26) p value
Clinical characteristics and comorbidities
 Age (years) 61 (50–70) 56 (48–66) 67 (59–72) < 0.01
 Male gender, n (%) 55 (82.1%) 33 (80.5%) 22 (84.6%) 0.75
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.3 (24.2–31.9) 27.3 (23.9–31.6) 27.4 (24.6–32.3) 0.70
 SAPS II at ICU admission 36 (28–45) 30 (27–40) 41 (36–52) < 0.01
 Diabetes mellitus 24 (36%) 11 (27%) 13 (50%) 0.054
 Atrial fibrillation 6 (9%) 3 (7%) 7 (12%) 0.67
 Arterial hypertension 36 (54%) 17 (42%) 19 (73%) 0.01
 Chronic systolic heart failure 7 (10%) 1 (2%) 6 (23%) < 0.01
 Chronic renal replacement therapy 2 (3%) 1 (2%) 1 (4%) > 0.99
Chronic treatments
 Aspirin 13 (19%) 4 (10%) 9 (35%) 0.02
 Anticoagulants 4 (6%) 2 (5%) 2 (8%) 0.64
 Statin 14 (21%) 5 (12%) 9 (35%) 0.03
 Beta-blockers 15 (22%) 6 (15%) 9 (35%) 0.056
 ACE inhibitors or ARB 24 (36%) 9 (22%) 15 (56%) < 0.01
 Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist 1 (2%) 0 1 (4%) 0.39
 Diuretic 6 (9%) 1 (2%) 5 (19%) 0.03
Organ failure and hemodynamics at time of echocardiography
 GCS before intubation 15 (15–15) 15 (15–15) 15 (15–15) 0.37
 pH 7.36 (7.32–7.42) 7.40 (7.35–7.45) 7.32 (7.23–7.37) < 0.01
 Bicarbonates (mmol/L) 25.8 (22.8–27.0) 26.4 (25.2–28.0) 23.3 (20.4–25.9) < 0.01
 Arterial blood lactate (mmol/L) 1.5 (1.2–2.0) 1.4 (1.2–1.8) 2.0 (1.2–2.6) 0.01
 hs-TNT (ng/L) 33 (14–77) 25 (14–44) 52 (23–358) 0.01
 Acute myocardial injury* 47 (72%) 26 (67%) 21 (81%) 0.21
 CPK (UI/L) 171 (85–364) 129 (63–305) 193 (147–421) 0.03
 NT-proBNP (ng/L) 405 (141–1831) 392 (128–1058) 611 (167–3118) 0.18
 Creatinine (μmol/L) 103 (72–201) 81 (67–121) 166 (95–256) < 0.01
 Platelet count (G/L) 250 (174–313) 268 (173–330) 229 (181–289) 0.36
 Bilirubin (μmol/L) 9 (6–22) 10 (6–28) 9 (6–18) 0.53
 SOFA score 8 (6–9) 7 (6–9) 9 (7–10) 0.03
 PaO2/FiO2 139 (105–203) 145 (118–209) 133 (94–197) 0.27
 PaCO2 (mmHg) 42 (38–47) 42 (39–46) 42 (37–47) 0.38
 Invasive mechanical ventilation 66 (99%) 40 (98%) 26 (100%) > 0.99
 PEEP (cmH2O) 11 (8–12) 11 (8–12) 11 (9–13) 0.43
 Driving pressure 12 (11–15) 13 (10–16) 12 (11–14) 0.63
 Crs (mL/cmH2O) 32.7 (26.7–41.2) 32.7 (25.7–41.3) 32.3 (26.7–39.2) 0.97
 24-h fluid balance (mL) 500 (250–1000) 500 (63–688) 750 (500–1125) 0.03
 MAP 78 (71–85) 80 (72–85) 75 (70–86) 0.46
 Shock (need for vasopressor) 60 (90%) 36 (88%) 24 (92%) 0.70
 Norepinephrine dose (mg/L) 0.6 (0.3–1.7) 0.5 (0.1–1.0) 1.4 (0.5–2.7) < 0.01
 ECMO (%)     0.44
  Veno-venous 3 (5%) 2 (5%) 1 (4%)  
  Veno-arterial 0 0 0  
  Veno-arterio-venous 1 (2%) 0 1 (4%)  
 Renal replacement therapy 3 (5%) 3 (8%) 0 0.27
  1. Survival was assessed at day 28. Values are expressed as median (IQR). COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, ICU intensive care unit, ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers, GCS Glasgow coma scale, hs-TNT high-sensitive troponin, CPK creatinine phosphokinase, NT-proBNP N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, PaO2 partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood, PaCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood, FiO2 fraction of inspired oxygen, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, Crs respiratory system compliance, MAP mean arterial pressure, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  2. *Acute myocardial injury was assessed in 65 patients with available hs-TNT