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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of the participants

From: The effects of a limited infusion rate of fluid in the early resuscitation of sepsis on glycocalyx shedding measured by plasma syndecan-1: a randomized controlled trial

  Standard rate (n = 48) Limited rate (n = 48)
Age (years) 72 (16) 70(18)
Sex (female) 18 (38%) 19(40%)
Body weight (kg) 49.3 (7.9) 54.8 (11.8)
Charlson comorbidity index 5 (4, 6.5) 5 (3, 7)
Comorbidities
 Cerebrovascular disease 30 (63%) 23 (48%)
 Diabetes mellitus 21 (44%) 20 (42%)
 Malignancy 15 (31%) 18 (38%)
 Ischemic heart disease 3 (6%) 8 (17%)
 Chronic kidney disease 1 (2%) 5 (10%)
Hypoperfusion defined by
 Lactate ≥ 2 mmol/L 44 (90%) 42 (86%)
 Hemodynamic instability 23 (48%) 13 (27%)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 105.9 (32.8) 114.3 (29.8)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 58.4 (20.2) 66.5 (17.7)
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 74.6 (22.7) 82.3 (19.9)
Body temperature (degree Celsius) 38.5 (1.3) 38.1 (1.2)
Heart rate (/min) 117.8 (28.1) 119.6 (24.3)
Respiratory rate (/min) 24.3 (7.1) 24.0 (6.3)
Ambient air pulse oximetry (%) 90.2 (12.0) 93.3 (7.7)
Currently use systemic steroid 5 (10%) 12 (25%)
APACHE II 18.0 (13.0, 24.5) 15.5 (11.0, 20.0)
SOFA 5(2,6) 4(2,5)
Sepsis* 43 (90%) 43 (90%)
Septic shock* 11 (23%) 6 (13%)
Normal to increased LVEF 44 (92%) 41 (85%)
Lactate (mmol/L) 4.9(3.2) 4.4(2.4)
Baseline NT-proBNP (pg/ml) 950.7 (435.5, 1946) 1188.5 (366, 2495.5)
P/F ratio at baseline (mmHg) 364.9 (174.0) 328.7 (134.3)
Intravenous fluid before randomization (ml)
 None 40 (83%) 39 (79%)
 200 5 (10%) 5 (10%)
 201–500 3 (6%) 5 (10%)
Site of infection
 Respiratory tract 23 (48%) 19 (40%)
 Urinary tract 10 (21%) 10 (21%)
 Intraabdominal 10 (21%) 10 (21%)
 Bloodstream 2 (4%) 1 (2%)
 Central nervous system 0 1 (2%)
 Other/unknown 3 (6%) 7 (15%)
Baseline syndecan-1 level (ng/ml)§
 Median (Q1, Q3) 205 (136, 378) 222(126, 759)
 Geometric mean (95% CI) 258 (179–373) 312 (217–451)
  1. Data indicate the mean (SD), median (Q1, Q3), or n (%) unless otherwise stated
  2. APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction
  3. *According to the sepsis-3 definition [16].
  4. According to the qualitative LVEF estimations [17].
  5. Six data points are missing in the standard-rate group and four are missing in the limited-rate group due to administrative reasons
  6. §One data point is missing in the limited infusion rate group due to administrative reasons