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Table 2 Biceps brachii and rectus femoris muscle atrophy between survivors and non-survivors

From: Upper limb muscle atrophy associated with in-hospital mortality and physical function impairments in mechanically ventilated critically ill adults: a two-center prospective observational study

  Day 3 Day 5 Day 7
  n = 43/21* n = 38/18* n = 21/15*
Biceps brachii muscle atrophy ratio    
 Survivors (%) 5.8 (1.7–11.9) 10.8 (2.7–12.1) 12.2 (9.0–13.9)
 Non-survivors (%) 8.0 (3.7–10.1) 14.8 (7.3–17.0) 19.6 (12.5–28.3)
 Univariate analysis p valuea 0.43 0.01 < 0.01
 Multivariate analysis p valueb 0.38 0.01 < 0.01
Rectus femoris muscle atrophy ratio    
 Survivors (%) 6.1 (0.7–11.5) 11.0 (3.4–18.9) 15.6 (3.3–18.0)
 Non-survivors (%) 11.1 (4.6–17.6) 18.0 (12.2–23.5) 23.9 (20.2–31.3)
 Univariate analysis p valuea 0.32 0.01 < 0.01
 Multivariate analysis p valueb 0.78 0.049 < 0.01
  1. Atrophy ratio was reported as median (interquartile range)
  2. *The number shows survivors/non-survivors in each study day
  3. aUnivariate analysis was conducted comparing the atrophy ratio between survivors and non-survivors
  4. bMultivariate analysis was conducted using age, gender, APACHE II score, and the limb muscle atrophy to evaluate in-hospital mortality. Good fit was confirmed with the Hosmer–Lemeshow test (p = 0.28–0.85), and the c statistics was 0.71–0.93