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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Upper limb muscle atrophy associated with in-hospital mortality and physical function impairments in mechanically ventilated critically ill adults: a two-center prospective observational study

Variables Overall (n = 64)
Age, years (mean [SD]) 70 ± 13
Sex (men), n (%) 43 (67)
Body mass index, kg/m2 22.6 (20.4–25.9)
Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II 27 (22–30)
Sequential Organ Failure Assessment 8 (5–10)
Sepsis defined by sepsis-3 criteria 34 (53)
Length of mechanical ventilation, days 6 (4–13)
Length of ICU stay, days 10 (6–16)
Length of hospital stay, days 38 (18–57)
Mortality in the ICU, n (%) 13 (20)
Mortality in the hospital, n (%) 21 (33)
ICU admission reasons, n (%)  
 Respiratory failure 27 (42)
 Sepsis, non-respiratory 9 (14)
 Post-cardiac surgery 7 (11)
 Heart failure 5 (8)
 Trauma 5 (8)
 Cardiac arrest 5 (8)
 Neurologic 3 (5)
 Other 3 (5)
Comorbiditiesa, n (%)  
 Diabetes mellitus 15 (23)
 Cancer 7 (11)
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases 2 (3)
Medications, n (%)  
 Opioid 55 (86)
 Midazolam 32 (50)
 Dexmedetomidine 33 (52)
 Propofol 18 (28)
 Catecholamineb 40 (63)
 Steroidsc 22 (34)
 Neuromuscular blocking agentsd 9 (14)
 Aminoglycoside 2 (3)
Nutritione  
 Calorie, kcal/kg  
  Day 3 8.6 (3.5–13.1)
  Day 5 13.1 (8.3–18.7)
  Day 7 13.3 (8.0–17.3)
 Protein, g/kg  
  Day 3 0.4 (0.2–0.8)
  Day 5 0.7 (0.3–1.0)
  Day 7 0.6 (0.3–1.0)
 ICU mobility scale  
  Day 3 0 (0–1)
  Day 5 0 (0–1)
  Day 7 1 (0–1)
  1. Data were presented as median (interquartile range) unless otherwise indicated
  2. SD standard deviation, ICU intensive care unit
  3. aPresence of comorbidities at the ICU admission
  4. bCatecholamines including dopamine, dobutamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline cCorticosteroids with intravenous or peroral use
  5. dNeuromuscular blocking agents with continuous use
  6. eEnteral and parenteral nutrition