Skip to main content

Table 3 GRADE analysis and assessment of quality of evidence

From: Electromagnetic-guided versus endoscopic placement of post-pyloric feeding tubes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Quality assessment Summary of findings
No of patients Effect Quality
No of studies Design Limitations Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Other considerations EM ENDO Relative (95% CI) Absolute
Procedure success rate
4 randomised trials seriousa no serious inconsistency no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 237/287 (82.6%) 207/249 (83.1%) RR 0.97 (0.91 to 1.03) 25 fewer per 1000 (from 75 fewer to 25 more)
MODERATE
87.2% 26 fewer per 1000 (from 78 fewer to 26 more)
Need for reinsertion
2 randomised trials seriousa no serious inconsistency no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 41/148 (27.7%) 44/133 (33.1%) RR 0.84 (0.59 to 1.2) 53 fewer per 1000 (from 136 fewer to 66 more)
MODERATE
33.3% 53 fewer per 1000 (from 137 fewer to 67 more)
Number of attempts
2 randomised trials seriousa seriousb no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 125 104 - MD 0.23 lower (0.99 lower to 0.53 higher)
LOW
Placement-related complications
4 randomised trials seriousa no serious inconsistency no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 18/287 (6.3%) 18/249 (7.2%) RR 0.78 (0.41 to 1.49) 16 fewer per 1000 (from 43 fewer to 35 more)
MODERATE
6.5% 14 fewer per 1000 (from 38 fewer to 32 more)
Tube-related complications
2 randomised trials seriousa no serious inconsistency no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 57/161 (35.4%) 50/154 (32.5%) RR 1.08 (0.82 to 1.44) 26 more per 1000 (from 58 fewer to 143 more)
MODERATE
33.1% 26 more per 1000 (from 60 fewer to 146 more)
Insertion time
4 randomised trials seriousa seriousb no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 287 249 - MD 4.3 higher (0.2 to 8.39 higher)
LOW
Total procedure time
2 randomised trials seriousa seriousb no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 161 154 - MD 18.09 lower (38.66 lower to 2.47 higher)
LOW
Patient discomfort
2 randomised trials seriousa no serious inconsistency no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 161 154 - MD 1.28 higher (0.46 to 2.1 higher)
MODERATE
Patient recommendation
3 randomised trials seriousa seriousb no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 243 227 - MD 1.67 higher (0.24 to 3.1 higher)
LOW
Length of hospital stay
2 randomised trials seriousa no serious inconsistency no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 161 154 - MD 1.57 higher (0.33 lower to 3.47 higher)
MODERATE
ICU mortality
3 randomised trials seriousa no serious inconsistency no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 28/205 (13.7%) 28/176 (15.9%) RR 0.8 (0.5 to 1.29) 32 fewer per 1000 (from 80 fewer to 46 more)
MODERATE
20% 40 fewer per 1000 (from 100 fewer to 58 more)
In-hospital mortality
3 randomised trials seriousa no serious inconsistency no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 39/205 (19%) 36/176 (20.5%) RR 0.87 (0.59 to 1.28) 27 fewer per 1000 (from 84 fewer to 57 more)
MODERATE
27.5% 36 fewer per 1000 (from 113 fewer to 77 more)
Total costs
3 randomised trials seriousa seriousb no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none 243 227 - SMD 1.8 lower (3.96 lower to 0.36 higher)
LOW
  1. aBlinding of participants and personnel are impossible in all RCTs
  2. bStatistical heterogeneity between RCTs