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Table 2 Outcomes evaluated in studies

From: Electromagnetic-guided versus endoscopic placement of post-pyloric feeding tubes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Study (year) Arms Procedure success rate, n (%) Position of placed tube, (n) Reinsertions, n (%) Number of attempts, mean ± SD Placement-related complications, n (%) Tube-related complications, n (%) Insertion time (min), median (IQR) Total procedure time (min), median (IQR) Patient discomfort, median (IQR) Patient recommendation, median (IQR) Length of hospital stay (days), median (IQR) ICU mortality, n (%) In-hospital mortality, n (%) Total costs, mean ± SD
Holzinger, U et al. (2011) [5] EM 40 (90.9) NR NR 1.18 ± 0.54 8 (18.2) NR 11 (6–19) NR NR NR NR 12 (27.3) 17 (38.6) NR
ENDO 21 (95.5) NR NR 1.82 ± 0.79 4 (18.2) NR 15 (10–21) NR NR NR NR 7 (31.8) 9 (40.9) NR
Gerritsen, A et al. (2016) [6] EM 56 (70.9) Horizontal duodenum (15)
Ascending duodenum (20)
Jejunum (20)
Jejunal limb of anastomosis (3)
20 (30.3) NR 2 (2.6) 43 (53.8) 15 (10–27) 31 (25–45) 3.9 (2.0–6.7) 8.2 (4.8–9.9) 12 (7–22) 2 (2.5) 2 (2.5) € 584 (504–669)
Mean (95% BCaCI)
ENDO 52 (70.3) Horizontal duodenum (8)
Ascending duodenum (18)
Jejunum (18)
Jejunal limb of anastomosis (8)
21 (35.0) NR 5 (6.8) 36 (48.6) 11 (8–18) 60 (40–85) 2.0 (0.2–5.6) 5.5 (2.3–7.8) 10 (7–18) 5 (6.8) 5 (6.8) € 700 (585–835) mean (95% BCaCI)
Kappelle, WFW et al. (2018) [7] EM 67 (82) Duodenal bulb (1)
Descending duodenum (1)
Horizontal duodenum (6)
Ascending duodenum (35)
Jejunum (24)
21 (26) NR 4 (4.9) NR 20 (10–30) NR NR 4 (2–6) NR NR NR $ 522.3 ± 340.5
ENDO 58 (73) Duodenal bulb (4)
Descending duodenum (8)
Horizontal duodenum (12)
Ascending duodenum (23)
Jejunum (11)
23 (32) NR 4 (5.5) NR 10 (7–13) NR NR 4 (0.8–7) NR NR NR $ 631.8 ± 332.5
Gao, XJ et al. (2018) [8] EM 74 (91.4) Horizontal duodenum (7)
Ascending duodenum (9)
Jejunum (46)
Ligament of Treitz (11)
NR 1.22 ± 0.42 4 (5.0) 14 (17.3) 13 ± 4
mean ± SD
18 ± 3
mean ± SD
4.3 ± 1.7
mean ± SD
7.1 ± 1.8
mean ± SD
17.6 ± 8.4
mean ± SD
14 (17.3) 20 (25) $ 333 ± 24
ENDO 76 (95.0) Horizontal duodenum (5)
Descending duodenum (7)
Jejunum (52)
Ligament of Treitz (12)
NR 1.08 ± 0.27 5 (6.3) 14 (17.5) 7 ± 2.5
mean ± SD
26 ± 6
mean ± SD
3.3 ± 1.5
mean ± SD
4.9 ± 2.4
mean ± SD
16.3 ± 7.3
mean ± SD
16 (20) 22 (27.5) $ 461 ± 28
  1. BCaCI bias-corrected and accelerated confidence interval, EM electromagnetic-guided placement, ENDO endoscopic placement, GI gastrointestinal tract, IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation, NR not reported