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Table 1 Characteristics of studies and patient demographics

From: Electromagnetic-guided versus endoscopic placement of post-pyloric feeding tubes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Study (year) Location Setting Number of centres Type of patients Indications for enteral nutrition Sedation medication Arms Sample size, n Age (year), mean ± SD Sex, male, % Body mass index (kg/m2),
mean ± SD
Prior altered upper gastrointestinal anatomy, n (%) Sedation, n (%) Pre-procedural fasting Use of prokinetic agents, n (%) Operators required (n)
Holzinger, U et al. (2011) [5] Austria Single 1 ICU patients Intolerance of intragastric enteral nutrition NR EM 44 55 ± 18 63.6 28 ± 7 0 (0) 39 (88.6) NR NR NR
ENDO 22 56 ± 15 36.4 29 ± 8 0 (0) 18 (81.8) NR 0 (0) Gastroenterologist (1), nurse (NR)
Gerritsen, A et al. (2016) [6] Netherlands Multicentre 5 Patients from gastrointestinal surgical wards Postoperative gastroparesis, malnutrition, pancreatitis, ileus, and other NR EM 80 63.2 ± 14.4 51.3 25.6 (22.4–27.7) median (interquartile range) 14 (17.5) 0 (0) None 49 (61.3) Nurse (1)
ENDO 74 64.6 ± 13.1 56.8 24.7 (22.4–26.9) median (interquartile range) 14 (18.9) 61 (82.4) Yes 46 (62.2) Gastroenterologist (1), nurse (1–2)
Kappelle, WFW et al. (2018) [7] Netherlands Multicentre 3 ICU patients and non-ICU patients Postoperative gastroparesis,critical illness gastroparesis,pancreatitis, severe GERD, severe vomiting, low intake, and other Propofol EM 82 57.9 ± 16.8 53.7 NR 0 (0) 11 (12.9) Yes 7 (9) Nurse (1)
ENDO 73 56.6 ± 14.3 60.3 NR 0 (0) 43 58.9) Yes 0 (0) Gastroenterologist (1), nurse (1–2)
Gao, XJ et al. (2018) [8] China Single 1 ICU patients Intolerance of intragastric enteral nutrition Propofol EM 81 51.5 ± 18.3 53.1 21.2 ± 3.3 0 (0) 0 (0) NR 81 (100) Member of nutritional support team (1)
ENDO 80 52.3 ± 18.2 51.3 21.6 ± 3.2 0 (0) 80 (100) Yes 80 (100) Gastroenterologist (1), nurse (1–2)
  1. RCT randomised controlled trial, EM electromagnetic-guided nasoenteral feeding tube placement, ENDO endoscopic nasoenteral feeding tube placement, GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease, ICU intensive care unit, NR not reported