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Table 1 Patient characteristics in different groups

From: The higher the better? Defining the optimal beta-lactam target for critically ill patients to reach infection resolution and improve outcome

Parameter All: n (%), median [min, max] Group 1: n (%), median [min, max] Group 2: n (%), median [min, max] Group 3: n (%), median [min, max]
Age, years 62 [23, 90] 58 [23, 75] 62 [27, 84] 68 [48, 90]
Male/female 33/22 9/8 15/9 9/5
BMI, kg/m2 24.8 [15.2, 94.5] 24.0 [16.8, 94.5] 25.0 [20.4, 49.2] 26.0 [19.0, 30.1]
CRP d1 (mg/dL) 12.0 [0.7, 36.4] 9.8 [0.7, 32.5] 13.8 [1.1 28.2] 12.7 [0.7, 36.4]
ΔCRP (d1–d3, mg/dL) 3.0 [− 17.1, 18.2] − 0.3 [− 17.1, 17.9] 4.5 [− 11.5, 12.8] 4.45 [− 6.0, 18.2]
IL-6 d1 (pg/mL) 93.1 [4, 2469] 101 [50.6, 470] 90.2 [5.1, 530] 108.2 [10.7, 2469]
ΔIL-6 (d1–d3, pg/dL) 48 [− 727, 2327] 50 [− 727, 433] 46.5 [− 138, 486] 84.7 [− 68.1, 2327]
APACHE II d1 25 [12, 51] 24 [16, 34] 25 [12, 37] 28.5 [18, 51]
ΔAPACHE–II (d1–d3) 4 [− 13, 22] 8 [− 6, 17] 3 [− 7, 22] 4 [− 13, 14]
SOFA d1 10 [3, 19] 9 [3, 14] 11 [5, 16] 11 [3, 19]
ΔSOFA (d1–d3) 4 [− 8, 9] 2 [− 8, 9] 2 [− 2, 7] 2 [− 4, 6]
Body temperature > 38.0 °C d1 17 (30.1) 4 (23.5) 9 (37.5) 4 (28.6)
Catecholamine therapy d1 45 (81.8) 12 (70.6) 20 (83.3) 13 (92.9)
Invasive ventilation d1 41 (74.5) 11 (64.7) 18 (75.0) 12 (85.7)
Bilirubin d1 (mg/dL) 0.9 [0.2, 11.9] 0.8 [0.2, 10] 0.9 [0.2, 4.9] 0.9 [0.4, 11.9]
ΔBilirubin (d1–d5, mg/dL) 0.2 [− 6.1, 8.7] 0.2 [− 1.5, 1.1] 0.2 [− 0.3, 2.3] 0.1 [− 6.1, 8.7]
AST d1 (U/L) 69.5 [16, 1359] 92 [52, 850] 64 [16, 1359] 61 [25, 693]
ΔAST (d1–d5, U/L) 25 [− 563, 1223] 47 [− 60, 792] 8 [− 563, 1223] 0 [− 168, 645]
ALT d1 (U/L) 29 [7, 2018] 28 [14, 987] 30 [8, 2018] 23 [7, 695]
ΔALT (d1–d5, U/L) − 3 [− 322, 1662] − 3 [− 40, 741] − 5 [− 322, 1662] 1 [− 250, 415]
GGT d1 (U/L) 38 [11, 850] 28 [14, 547] 41 [11, 850] 97.5 [11, 618]
ΔGGT (d1–d5, U/L) − 30 [− 1643, 457] − 30 [− 522, 249] − 29.5 [− 603, 101] − 30.5 [− 1643, 457]
Creatinine d1 (mg/dL) 0.8 [0.4, 5.3] 0.7 [0.5, 1.2] 0.8 [0.6, 1.8] 1.2 [0.8, 5.3]
Δ creatinine (d1–d5, mg/dL) 0.05 [–3.4, 2] 0.0 [− 0.3, 2] 0.1 [–0.5, 0.7] 0.0 [–3.4, 0.4]
Urea d1 (mg/dL) 34 [18,131] 30.5 [18, 61] 34 [20, 131] 71 [29, 113]
Δ urea (d1–d5, mg/dL) − 9.5 [− 134, 51] − 9.5 [− 48, 9] − 7 [− 134, 51] − 23 [− 76, 27]
CLCR d1 (mL/min) 79 [4, 200] 146.5 [59, 200] 76 [13, 170] 42 [4, 80]
Δ CLCR (d1–d5, mL/min) − 17 [− 139, 78] 5.5 [− 139, 78] − 24.5 [− 116, 70] − 10 [− 41, 3]
RRT 9 (16.4) 1 (5.9) 3 (12.5) 5 (35.7)
ECMO d1 2 (3.6) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.2) 1 (7.1)
In-hospital mortality 13 (23.6) 3 (17.6) 2 (8.3) 8 (57.1)
Trough-level meropenem (mg/L) 5.0 [0.25, 65.3] 1.85 [0.25, 20.4] 5.4 [2.17, 27.4] 18.3 [8.48, 65.3]
Trough-level piperacillin (mg/L) 40.1 [0.5, 400] 8.09 [0.5, 27.2] 25 [7.2, 156] 89.2 [46, 400]
  1. CRP C-reactive protein, d1 day 1 of evaluation, IL-6 interleukin-6, AST serum aspartate aminotransferase, ALT serum alanine aminotransferase, GGT glutamine-glutamyl transferase, CLCR creatinine-clearance, RRT renal replacement therapy, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, d1–d5 day 1–day 5