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Table 3 Characteristics of the learner population, training program, device used, and study duration for 23 included studies

From: Ensuring competency in focused cardiac ultrasound: a systematic review of training programs

  LEARNERS   ULTRASOUND DEVICE STUDY DURATION
Ratio of Learners to Instructors Didactic hours Hands-on hours Total training hours # of training scans
Alexander 2004 [36] 20 IM residents Not specified 1.5 1.5 3 Not specified Phillips OptiGo 7 months
Beraud 2013 [37] 18 critical care fellows 18:1 8 15 23 25 exams (avg)
Range: 18-32
Sonosite M-Turbo 1 year
Caronia 2013 [38] 7 IM residents 1:1 5 3   15 exams (avg)
Range: 5-31
Sonosite M-Turbo 1 month
Carrie 2015 [39] 6 EM residents Not specified 6 Not specified 6 + hands-on timea Not specified GE Vscan 3 months
Chisholm 2013 [40] 14 EM attendings 14:1 9.2 Not specified 9.2 8 exams (avg)
Range: 3-13
Sonosite M-Turbo 5 months
Croft 2006 [41] 9 IM residents Not specified 15 5 20 Not specified Phillips OptiGo 1 month
Farsi 2017 [42] 17 EM residents Not specified 4 6 10 Not specified Samsung SonoAce X8 3 months
Ferrada 2011 [43] 6 surgeons,
1 EM attending
7:1 1.16 0.5 1.66 1 exam SonoSite S-ICU Not specified
Gaudet 2016 [44] 6 critical care fellows 6:1 8 8 16 0 exams Philips iE33 xMATRIX Not specified
Hellmann 2005 [45] 30 IM residents Not specified 0.75 Not specified 0.75 + self studya 3 exams SonoSite 180 2 years
Johnson 2016 [46] 10 IM residents Not specified Not specified Not specified 18 44 exams (avg) SonoSite NanoMaxx or SonoSite EDGE 6 months
Labbe 2016 [47] 5 IM residents 5:1 3.9 1.8 5.7 10 exams Phillips HD11XE or Phillips CX50 5 months
6 IM residents 6:1 5.6 2.7 8.3 27 exams 7 months
Lucas 2009 [48] 8 hospitalists 8:1 2 20 27 30 exams MicroMaxx 3.4 3 months
Manasia 2005 [49] 6 intensivists 6:1 Not specified Not specified 10 not specified SonoHeart 9 months
Martin 2007 [50] 10 hospitalists Not specified 6 Not specified 6 + self studya 5 exams SonoSite Elite 4-7 months
Mjolstad 2013 [51] 6 IM residents Not specified 4 Not specified 4 95 exams (median)
Range: 80-225
GE Vscan 1.2 2.5 months
Mozzini 2014 [52] 23 IM residents Not specified Not specified Not specified 9 5 exams Philips Envisor 9 months
12 IM residents Not specified Not specified Not specified 18 5 exams
Ruddox 2013 [53] 26 IM residents 5:1 or 6:1 1 1 2 Not specified GE Vscan 9 months
Ruddox 2017 [54] 20 IM residents 2:1, 3:1, or 4:1 1.5 2.5 4 Not specified GE Vscan 6 months
See 2014 [55] 7 critical care fellows Online learning 10 2.5 12.5 5 exams Philips Sparq 1 year
Smith 2018 [56] 9 hospitalists 9:1 8+ Not specified 30.6 (avg) Not specified Philips Sparq 6 months
Vignon 2010 [57] 5 anesthesia residents, 1 IM resident 3:1 6 6 12 10-12 exams Philips OptiGo 3 months
Yan 2010 [58] 10 medical students Not specified 7 3 10 Not specified GE Vscan 1 months
  1. Italicized studies reported kappa agreement values for LV systolic function and/or pericardial effusion and were therefore included in quantitative analysis
  2. IM Internal medicine, EM Emergency medicine, avg Average
  3. aDuration not specified