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Table 1 Main patients characteristics

From: Factors influencing liberation from mechanical ventilation in coronavirus disease 2019: multicenter observational study in fifteen Italian ICUs

  Total population (n = 391) Successful liberation from MV 28 days (n = 165) Unsuccessful liberation from MV 28 days (n = 226) p
Variables
 Age - year (IQR) 66 (59–72) 64 (56–70) 68 (62–74) < 0.001
 Sex - male – no (%) 300 (76.7%) 121 (73.3%) 179 (79.2%) 0.175
 BMI - median (IQR) 28 (26–31) 28 (26–31) 28 (26–31) 0.918
 SAPS II score 38 (31–46) 35 (28–42) 39 (33–48) < 0.001
 SOFA score at ICU admission 5 (3–7) 4 (3–6) 6 (4–8) < 0.001
Comorbidities
 Hypertension - no (%) 222 (56.8%) 79 (47.9%) 143 (63.3%) 0.003
 Chronic ischemic heart disease - no (%) 35 (9.0%) 12 (7.3%) 23 (10.2%) 0.416
 Chronic kidney disease (CKD) 26 (6.6%) 8 (4.8%) 18 (8.0%) 0.362
 CKD - patients in dialisys - no (%) 4 (1.0%) 1 (0.6%) 3 (1.3%)  
 COPD - no (%) 27 (6.9%) 11 (6.7%) 16 (7.1%) 0.964a
 COPD - home oxygen therapy/CPAP - no (%) 2 (0.5%) 1 (0.6%) 1 (0.4%)  
 Diabetes - no (%) 85 (21.7%) 28 (17.0%) 57 (25.2%) 0.067
 Chronic liver disease (MELD > 10) - no (%) 3 (0.8%) 1 (0.6%) 2 (0.9%) 1.000
 Active cancer - no (%) 7 (1.8%) 0 (0%) 7 (3.1%) 0.058
 Immunosuppressive therapy - no (%) 10 (2.6%) 1 (0.6%) 9 (4.0%) 0.078
Smoker status (n = 213) b
 Current - no (%) 13 (6.1%) 8 (8.1%) 5 (4.4%) 0.507a
 Previous - no (%) 66 (31.0%) 29 (29.3%) 37 (32.5%)  
Characteristics before ICU admission
 Time from symptoms onset to hospital admission (n = 327)b - d (IQR) 7 (4–9) 7 (4–9) 7 (4–10) 0.480
 Time from hospital admission to ICU admission - d (IQR) 2 (1–5) 2 (1–5) 2 (0–5) 0.436
 Time from hospital admission to intubation - d (IQR) 2 (1–5) 2 (1–5) 2 (1–6) 0.389
Ward of admission
 Emergency department - no (%) 70 (17.9%) 20 (12.1%) 50 (22.1%) 0.04a
 Medical ward - no (%) 184 (47.1%) 82 (49.7%) 102 (45.1%)  
 Other ICU - no (%) 137 (35.0%) 63 (38.2%) 74 (32.7%)  
 High flow nasal oxygen therapy before intubation (n = 362)b - no (%) 31 (8.5%) 14 (9.1%) 17 (8.1%) 0.880
 CPAP/Non-invasive ventilation trial before intubation (n = 363)b - no (%) 254 (70%) 117 (70.9%) 137 (60.6%) 0.029
Duration of CPAP/NIV trial (n = 363)b
 < 12 h - no (%) 56 (22.1%) 24 (20.5%) 32 (23.5%) 0.051a
 12–24 h - no (%) 63 (24.9%) 35 (29.9%) 28 (20.6%)  
 24–48 h - no (%) 44 (17.4%) 25 (21.4%) 19 (14.0%)  
 > 48 h - no (%) 90 (35.6%) 33 (28.2%) 57 (41.9%)  
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio before intubation (n = 297)b 94 (75–119) 96 (71–125) 91 (77–116) 0.544
  1. Abbreviations: IQR interquartile range, BMI body mass index, SAPS simplified acute physiology score, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score, CKD chronic kidney disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CPAP continuous positive airway pressure, MELD model for end-stage liver disease, NIV non-invasive ventilation, PaO2 arterial oxygen partial pressure, FiO2 inspired fraction of oxygen
  2. ap value referred to Pearson’s chi-square test performed on the contingency table represented
  3. bIncomplete data due to transfer from other ICUs without complete medical records